1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
(1) (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1

H

2.20

He

n.a.

You are watching: Which of the following elements has the highest electronegativity?

2 Li

0.98

Be

1.57

B

2.04

C

2.55

N

3.04

O

3.44

F

3.98

Ne

n.a.

3 Na

0.93

Mg

1.31

Al

1.61

Si

1.90

P

2.19

S

2.58

Cl

3.16

Ar

n.a.

4 K

0.82

Ca

1.00

Sc

1.36

Ti

1.54

V

1.63

Cr

1.66

Mn

1.55

Fe

1.83

Co

1.88

Ni

1.91

Cu

1.90

Zn

1.65

Ga

1.81

Ge

2.01

As

2.18

Se

2.55

Br

2.96

Kr

3.00

5 Rb

0.82

Sr

0.95

Y

1.22

Zr

1.33

Nb

1.60

Mo

2.16

Tc

1.90

Ru

2.20

Rh

2.28

Pd

2.20

Ag

1.93

Cd

1.69

In

1.78

Sn

1.96

Sb

2.05

Te

2.10

I

2.66

Xe

2.60

6 Cs

0.79

Ba

0.89

La

1.10

Hf

1.30

Ta

1.50

W

2.36

Re

1.90

Os

2.20

Ir

2.20

Pt

2.28

Au

2.54

Hg

2.00

Tl

1.62

Pb

2.33

Bi

2.02

Po

2.00

At

2.20

Rn

n.a.

7 Fr

0.70

Ra

0.89

Ac

1.10

Rf

n.a.

Db

n.a.

Sg

n.a.

Bh

n.a.

Hs

n.a.

Mt

n.a.

Ds

n.a.

Rg

n.a.

Uub

n.a.

Uuq

n.a.

6 Ce

1.12

Pr

1.13

Nd

1.14

Pm

1.13

Sm

1.17

Eu

1.20

Gd

1.20

Tb

1.10

Dy

1.22

Ho

1.23

Er

1.24

Tm

1.25

Yb

1.10

Lu

1.27

7 Th

1.30

Pa

1.50

U

1.38

Np

1.36

Pu

1.28

Am

1.30

Cm

1.30

Bk

1.30

Cf

1.30

Es

1.30

Fm

1.30

Md

1.30

No

1.30

Lr

1.30


Electronegativities reported in Pauling units

Data taken from man Emsley, The Elements, third edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Electronegativity refers to the ability of one atom to tempt shared electron in a covalent bond. The greater the value of the electronegativity, the much more strongly that element attracts the mutual electrons.

The principle of electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932; ~ above the Pauling scale, fluorine is assigned an electronegativity the 3.98, and the other elements are scaled relative to that value. Other electronegativity scales include the Mulliken scale, proposed by Robert S. Mulliken in 1934, in which the an initial ionization energy and electron affinity are averaged together, and also the Allred-Rochow scale, which measures the electrostatic attraction between the cell nucleus of one atom and its valence electrons.

Electronegativity varies in a predictable means across the routine table. Electronegativity boosts from bottom to top in groups, and also increases indigenous left come right across periods. Thus, fluorine is the most electronegative element, if francium is among the the very least electronegative.(Helium, neon, and also argon space not listed in the Pauling electronegativity scale, return in the Allred-Rochow scale, helium has the greatest electronegativity.) The trends are not very smooth among the change metals and also the inner shift metals, yet are reasonably regular because that the main group elements, and can be viewed in the charts below.

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The distinction in electronegativity between two bonded facets determines what type of shortcut they will certainly form. Once atoms v an electronegativity distinction of better than two units are joined together, the bond that is formed is one ionic bond, in i beg your pardon the an ext electronegative aspect has a an adverse charge, and the less electronegative element has a optimistic charge. (As one analogy, you have the right to think that it together a video game of tug-of-war in i beg your pardon one team is solid enough to traction the rope far from the various other team.) for example, sodium has an electronegativity of 0.93 and chlorine has actually an electronegativity that 3.16, so as soon as sodium and also chlorine kind an ionic bond, in which the chlorine take away an electron far from sodium, creating the sodium cation, Na+, and the chloride anion, Cl-. Particular sodium and chloride ions room not "tied" together, however they lure each various other very strong because of opposing charges, and kind a solid crystal lattice.

When atoms through an electronegativity difference of much less than 2 units are joined together, the bond that is created is a covalent bond, in which the electrons are mutual by both atoms. As soon as two that the very same atom share electrons in a covalent bond, there is no electronegativity difference between them, and the electron in the covalent bond are shared equally — the is, over there is a symmetrical distribution of electrons in between the external inspection atoms. These bonds are nonpolar covalent bonds. (As one analogy, you can think that it together a video game of tug-of-war in between two equally solid teams, in i m sorry the rope doesn"t move.) for example, when two chlorine atoms are joined by a covalent bond, the electrons spend just as much time close to one chlorine atoms together they carry out to the other, and also the result molecule is nonpolar:

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When the electronegativity distinction is between 0 and 2, the more electronegative aspect attracts the shared an ext strongly, yet not strongly enough to remove the electrons completely to kind an ionic compound. The electrons are common unequally — that is, there is one unsymmetrical distribution of electrons between the bonded atoms. These bonds are dubbed polar covalent bonds. The an ext electronegative atom has actually a partial an unfavorable charge, d-, due to the fact that the electrons spend an ext time closer to the atom, if the less electronegative atom has actually a partial optimistic charge, d+, since the electron are partially (but no completely) pulled away from that atom. For example, in the hydrogen chloride molecule, chlorine is much more electronegative than hydrogen by 0.96 electronegativity units. The common electrons spend more time close to the chlorine atom, do the chlorine end of the molecule an extremely slightly negative (indicated in the figure below by the blue shaded region), when the hydrogen finish of the molecule is an extremely slightly confident (indicated by the red shaded region), and the result molecule is polar:

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For molecules with more than one covalent bond, the three-dimensional shape of the molecule and also how the polar bonds are oriented with respect to every other, determines even if it is or no the molecule is polar. This polarity of molecule plays a huge role in determining the physics properties that compounds.