l>Chapter 10: Review
Bureaucracy and Bureaucrats The standard features that define the principle of administration are uncovered in virtually all organizations, whether public or private, army or religious, for profit or nonprofit. Many institutions are administrations, and also most of their employees are bureaucrats. Why execute administrations exist and why are they needed? Bureaucracy is nopoint more than a type of company defined by particular features, consisting of a department of labor, alarea of attributes, alplace of obligation, supervision, permanent employment, and worker careers within the organization. Bureaucracy literally means "dominion by desks," in other words, a federal government by clerks. The objectives of a administration are efficiency and also efficiency, which are obtained with specialization and also repetition of work. Bureaucracies are developed in federal government to carry out a large selection of tasks, to administer crucial solutions, and also to act as professionals in specific areas of policy. Regardless of the basic belief that the federal administration has grvery own too big and also unresponsive, the size of the federal administration has remained stable over the previous 25 years, and has actually actually declined when compared to the dimension of the civilian workforce or the boost in federal spending. What functions carry out federal government bureaucrats perform? Bureaucrats interact through each various other, keep paper for accountability, interpret the law, and implement the missions of the organization. Congress has actually delegated a significant amount of authority to the federal bureaucracy by providing agencies the power to draft federal regulations (rule-making) and also to adjudicate problems over these regulations. Is the federal administration representative of the population? Prior to 1883, bureaucrats were political appointees—a result of the spoils system. The assassicountry of President Garfield in 1881 resulted in the passage of the Civil Service Act of 1883, which produced a merit system for the hiring of federal bureaucrats. Today, the federal bureaucracy even more very closely reflects the sociological complace of the nation than any various other branch of the federal government. The Organization of the Executive Branch What are the agencies that comprise the executive branch? The federal bureaucracy consists of the Cabinet departments, independent agencies, federal government corporations, and also independent regulatory comobjectives. The Cabinet departments are headed by a secretary (except the exception of the Department of Justice, which is headed by the attorney general), however it is the bureau level that is responsible for connecting with the public. Independent agencies exist external the framework of the Cabinet departments and also bring out attributes that are too costly for the personal sector (e.g., NASA). Government corporations (e.g., the UNITED STATE Postal Service and AMTRAK) are designed to run choose businesses and hopefully generate a profit. Independent regulatory comgoals control some element of society (e.g., the Federal Communications Commission regulates the broadcast media). How deserve to one classify these agencies according to their missions? One of the a lot of vital tasks of the federal bureaucracy is to promote the public welfare (e.g., the Department of Health and Human being Services and also the Food and also Drug Administration). Clientele agencies lug out functions that advantage a specific group or clientele (e.g., the Departments of Agrisociety, Labor, Education, and Veterans Affairs). Agencies for the manage of the Union are of three types: those that regulate federal revenue (e.g., the Department of Commerce, the Federal Reserve System, and also the IRS), those that administer interior national defense (e.g., the FBI and also the Department of Justice), and those that defend against exterior risks (e.g., the CIA and the Departments of State and also Defense). Regulatory agencies make rules which bring the pressure of legislation over civilization and also businesses. Among them are the Food and also Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Redistributive agencies—those involved via fiscal, financial, and also welfare policy—move money in between the public and also private spheres and affect spending and investment. The Treasury Department and the Federal Reserve System are fiscal agencies; Social Security, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), and Medicaid are welfare agencies. Managing the Bureaucracy: Redevelopment, Reduction, and also Control Can government be made even more responsive and also efficient? The 1993 National Performance Review was designed to make the federal federal government even more efficient, accountable, and also reliable. Vice President Al Gore led in the initiative to reinvent federal government. By the end of 1999, the effort had developed a savings of $136 billion dollars.

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Congressional oversight has actually boosted over time, making sure that administrations serve their intended functions.