Key Points

The Peloponnesian War finished in success for Sparta and also its allies, however signaled the death of Athenian naval and political hegemony transparent the Mediterranean.Democracy in Athens to be briefly toppled in 411 BCE as a result of its negative handling that the Peloponnesian War. Lysander, the Spartan admiral that commanded the Spartan fleet in ~ Aegospotami in 405 BCE, assisted to to organize the Thirty Tyrants as Athens’ federal government for the 13 months they preserved power.Lysander established plenty of pro-Spartan governments throughout the Aegean, where the ruling classes were much more loyal to him than to Sparta as a whole. Eventually Spartan kings, Agis and also Pausanias, abolished these Aegean decarchies, control Lysander’s politics influence.Agesilaus II was among two Spartan kings during the duration of Spartan hegemony, and also is remembered because that his multiple projects in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories.Agesilaus’s loss at the battle of Leuctra properly ended Spartan hegemony transparent the region.

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The political, economic, or army predominance or manage of one state over others.


A Spartan term because that a armed forces governor.


A kind of power structure in i beg your pardon a tiny group of world hold all power and influence in a state.

The Peloponnesian War finished in victory for Sparta and also its allies, and also led straight to the increasing naval strength of Sparta. However, it significant the demise of Athenian naval and also political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean. The damage from the Peloponnesian battle weakened and divided the Greeks because that years come come, eventually permitting the Macedonians an possibility to conquer them in the mid-4th century BCE.


Democracy in Athens was briefly overthrown in 411 BCE as a result of its poor handling the the Peloponnesian War. Citizen reacted against Athens’ defeat, blaming democratic politicians, such together Cleon and Cleophon. The Spartan military encouraged revolt, installing a pro-Spartan oligarchy in ~ Athens, referred to as the Thirty Tyrants, in 404 BCE. Lysander, the Spartan admiral that commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to theorem the Thirty Tyrants together a government for the 13 months they preserved power.

During the Thirty Tyrants’ rule, five percent the the Athenian population was killed, exclusive property was confiscated, and democratic supporters were exiled. The Thirty appointed a the supervisory board of 500 to offer the judicial attributes that had formerly belonged to every citizens. Despite all this, not all Athenian men had actually their rights removed. In fact, 3,000 such males were preferred by the Thirty to share in the government of Athens. These guys were permitted to lug weapons, licensed has been granted to jury trial, and enabled to reside with the city limits. This perform of men was constantly being revised, and choice was most most likely a have fun of commitment to the regime, through the majority of Athenians not sustaining the Thirty Tyrants’ rule.

Nonetheless, the Thirty’s regime was not met with much overt opposition for the majority of their rule, as a result of the harsh penalties put on dissenters. Eventually, the level of violence and also brutality carried out by the Thirty in Athens led to raised opposition, stemming mostly from a rebel team of exiles led by Thrasybulus, a previous trierarch in the Athenian navy. The increased opposition culminated in a revolution that ultimately overthrew the Thirty’s regime. In the aftermath, Athens offered amnesty to the 3,000 males who were offered special therapy under the regime, through the exception of those who consisted of the governing Thirty and also their connected governmental officials. Athens struggled to recover from the upheaval led to by the Thirty Tyrants in the years that followed.


As a result of the Peloponnesian War, Sparta, which had actually primarily been a continental culture, became a marine power. At its peak, Sparta overpowered many key Greek states, consisting of the elite Athenian navy. By the end of the fifth century BCE, Sparta’s successes against the Athenian empire and capability to invade Persian districts in Anatolia introduced a period of Spartan hegemony. This hegemonic period was to it is in short-lived, however.


After the end of the Peloponnesian War, Lysander established plenty of pro-Spartan governments throughout the Aegean. Many of the judgment systems collection up through Lysander were ten-man oligarchies, called decarchies, in i beg your pardon harmosts, Spartan military governors, were the top of the government. Since Lysander appointed from in ~ the ruling classes of this governments, the males were more loyal to Lysander than Sparta, making these Aegean outposts similar to a exclusive empire.

Lysander and Spartan king Agis to be in commitment with Corinth and also Thebes the Athens need to be totally destroyed in the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War, yet they were opposed through a an ext moderate faction, top by Pausanias. Eventually, Pausanias’ center faction obtained the upper hand and Athens was spared, though its defensive walls and also port fortifications at Piraeus to be demolished. Lysander also managed to call for Athens to recall its exiles, causing political instability in ~ the city-state, of i m sorry Lysander took advantage to create the oligarchy that became known together the Thirty Tyrants. Since Lysander was additionally directly affiliated in the selection of the Thirty, these men were faithful to him over Sparta, bring about King Agis and King Pausanias come agree come the abolishment of his Aegean decarchies, and also eventually the restoration of democracy in Athens, which quickly curbed Lysander’s political influence.


Lysander. A 16th century engraving of Lysander


Agesilaus and also His Campaigns

Agesilaus II was one of two Spartan kings during the duration of Spartan hegemony. Lysander was one of Agesilaus’s greatest supporters, and was even a mentor. Throughout his kingship, Agesilaus carried out a variety of military projects in the eastern Aegean and also Persian territories. Throughout these campaigns, the Spartans under Agesilaus’s command met with numerous rebelling Greek poleis, consisting of the Thebans. The Thebans, Argives, Corinthians, and Athenians had rebelled throughout the Corinthian battle from 395-386 BCE, and also the Persians aided the Thebans, Corinthians, and also Athenians versus the Spartans.

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During the winter of 379/378 BCE, a group of Theban exiles snuck right into Thebes and also succeeded in liberating it, regardless of resistance from a 1,500-strong Spartan garrison. This led to a number of Spartan expeditions against Thebes, well-known as The Boeotian War. The Greek city-states at some point attempted come broker peace, but Theban diplomat Epaminondas angered Agesilaus by suggesting for the freedom of non-Spartan citizens in ~ Laconia. As a result, Agesilaus exclude, the Thebans from the treaty, and also the fight of Leuctra damaged out in 371 BCE; the Spartans ultimately lost. Sparta’s international political affect precipitated easily after their defeat.