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12.2 species of Outlines

Learning Objectives

specify three varieties of outlines: functioning outline, full-sentence outline, and also speaking outline. Identify the advantages of making use of notecards to current your speak outline.

When we discuss outlining, we room actually concentrating on a collection of outlines instead of a solitary one. Outlines space designed come evolve throughout your speech preparation process, so this section will talk about how you progression from a working summary to a full-sentence rundown and, finally, a speaking outline. We will also discuss exactly how using notecards for her speaking outline deserve to be useful to you together a speaker.

You are watching: Which kind of outline is usually brief and contains key words or phrases?

Working Outline

A working outline is an synopsis you use for emerging your speech. It experience many alters on its means to completion. This is the summary where girlfriend lay the end the simple structure of your speech. Friend must have actually a basic and details purpose; an introduction, including a grabber; and a concrete, specific thesis statement and also preview. You additionally need three key points, a conclusion, and a perform of references.

One strategy for start your working synopsis is to start by typing in her labels for each of the elements. Later on you can fill in the content.

When girlfriend look ahead to the full-sentence outline, you will notice that every of the three key points moves from the general to the particular. Specifically, each main allude is a claim, adhered to by specific information the supports that insurance claim so that the audience will certainly perceive that is validity. For example, for a speech about coal mining safety, your an initial main suggest might emphasis on the idea that coal mining is a hazardous occupation. You might start by making a very general claim, such together “Coal mining is just one of the many hazardous job in the joined States,” and also then become an ext specific by giving statistics, decisive quotations, or examples to support your major claim.

A functioning outline permits you to work out the kinks in your message. Because that instance, let’s say you’ve made the case that charcoal mining is a hazardous occupation however you cannot discover authoritative evidence as support. Currently you need to reexamine that main suggest to evaluate its validity. You could have to adjust that main allude in bespeak to have the ability to support it. If you perform so, however, you need to make certain the new main point is a logical part of the thesis statement–three key points–conclusion sequence.

The working summary shouldn’t be thought of a “rough copy,” but as a cautious step in the breakthrough of her message. It will take time come develop. Below is an example of a working outline:

Name: Anomaly may McGillicuddy

Topic: clever dust

General Purpose: come inform

Specific Purpose: To educate a group of scientific research students around the potential of clever dust

Main Ideas:

smart dust is an assembly that microcomputers. Smart dust deserve to be used by the military—no, no—smart dust can be an enormous asset in hidden military operations. (That’s far better because it is an ext clear and precise.) smart dust could likewise have applications to daily life.

Introduction: (Grabber) (fill in later)

(Thesis Statement) hence far, researchers hypothesize the smart dust could be offered for everything from tracking patients in hospitals to beforehand warnings of natural disasters and also defending against bioterrorism.

(Preview) Today, ns going to describe what smart dust is and also the miscellaneous applications smart dust has actually in the near future. To assist us know the small of it all, we will first examine what smart dust is and also how the works. We will certainly then study some armed forces applications of clever dust. And we will end by stating some nonmilitary applications of clever dust.

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main suggest I: Dr. Kris Pister, a professor in the robotics lab in ~ the college of California in ~ Berkeley, initially conceived the idea of smart dust in 1998 as component of a project funded through the Defense progressed Research Projects firm (DARPA).

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main point II: since smart dust was initially conceptualized under a give from DARPA, army uses of clever dust have actually been widely theorized and also examined.

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Main allude III: according to the clever dust job website, smart dust could quickly end up being a common component of our day-to-day lives.

(supporting point) (supporting point)

(Transition) (fill in later)

Conclusion: (Bring your message “full circle” and also create a psychologically satisfying closure.)

This stage of preparation transforms out to it is in a great place to go earlier and examine whether every the key points are straight related to the thesis statement and to each other. If so, your message has actually a strong potential because that unity that focus. However if the connection of among the key points is weak, this is the time to combine it. It will be more challenging later for 2 reasons: first, the sheer amount of message on your pages will certainly make the visual task much more difficult, and also second, it i do not care increasingly daunting to change things in i beg your pardon you have a big investment in time and thought.

You can see the this working outline deserve to lay a strong structure for the remainder of your message. Its company is visually apparent. Once you room confident in the internal unity the your basic message, girlfriend can begin filling in the sustaining points in descending detail—that is, indigenous the basic (main points) to the certain (supporting points) and then to higher detail. The summary makes the visually noticeable where info fits. Girlfriend only should assess your sustaining points come be certain they’re authoritative and also directly pertinent to the key points they have to support.

Sometimes transitions it seems ~ troublesome, and also that’s no surprising. We regularly omit them once we have informal conversations. Our conversation partners know what us mean since of our gestures and vocal strategies. However, others might not know what we mean, but think they do, and also so we can never know whether they understood us. Also when we incorporate transitions, us don’t generally identify them as transitions. In a speech, however, we have to use effective transitions as a gateway native one main point to the next. The listener needs to understand when a speak is moving from one main suggest to the next.

In the next form of outline, the full-sentence outline, take it a look at the transitions and see just how they make the listener aware of the shifting focus to the next key point.

Full-Sentence Outline

Your full-sentence outline need to contain full sentences only. There room several factors why this sort of rundown is important. First, you have a full plan of everything you intend to say to your audience, so the you will certainly not need to struggle through wordings or examples. Second, you have actually a clean idea of exactly how much time it will certainly take to present your speech. Third, the contributes a an essential ingredient of good preparation, component of your honest responsibility to her audience. This is just how a full-sentence summary looks:

Name: Anomaly may McGillicuddy

Topic: smart dust

General Purpose: to inform

Specific Purpose: To educate a team of scientific research students about the potential of clever dust.

Main Ideas:

clever dust is one assembly of microcomputers. Clever dust can be an substantial asset in hidden military operations. Smart dust could additionally have applications to daily life.

Introduction: (Grabber) In 2002, well known science fiction writer, Michael Crichton, released his publication Prey, i beg your pardon was around a swarm of nanomachines the were feeding off living tissue. The nanomachines to be solar powered, self-sufficient, and intelligent. Most disturbingly, the nanomachines might work with each other as a swarm as it took over and also killed its prey in its require for new resources. The technology for this level of sophistication in nanotechnology is surprisingly an ext science truth than scientific research fiction. In 2000, 3 professors of electric engineering and computer scientific research at the college of California at Berkeley, Kahn, Katz, and also Pister, hypothesized in the Journal the Communications and Networks that wireless networks of tiny microelectromechanical sensors, or MEMS; robots; or devices might detect phenomena including light, temperature, or vibration. By 2004, Fortune Magazine noted “smart dust” together the very first in your “Top 10 technology Trends to bet On.”

(Thesis Statement) Thus far researchers hypothesized the smart dust could be provided for everything from tracking patients in hospitals to early warnings of herbal disasters and as a defense against bioterrorism.

(Preview) Today, ns going to explain what smart dust is and also the miscellaneous applications smart dust has in the near future. To aid us know the tiny of it all, we will first examine what smart dust is and also how the works. We will then study some armed forces applications of smart dust. And we will finish by mentioning some nonmilitary applications of smart dust.

(Transition) To aid us understand smart dust, us will begin by very first examining what smart dust is.

Main suggest I: Dr. Kris Pister, a professor in the robotics lab at the university of California at Berkeley, initially conceived the idea of smart dust in 1998 as component of a project funded by the Defense advanced Research Projects firm (DARPA).

follow to a 2001 short article written through Bret Warneke, Matt Last, Brian Liebowitz, and also Kris Pister titled “Smart Dust: connecting with a Cubic-Millimeter Computer” published in Computer, Pister’s goal was to build a machine that consisted of a integrated sensor, interaction device, and a tiny computer that could be combined into a cubic millimeter package.

For comparison purposes, Doug Steel, in a 2005 white paper titled “Smart Dust” created for C. T. Bauer college of business at the college of Houston, listed that a solitary grain of rice has a volume of five cubic millimeters.

each individual item of dust, dubbed a mote, would certainly then have actually the capability to interact with other motes and also supercomputers. As Steve Lohr wrote in the January 30, 2010, version of the New York Times in an short article titled “Smart Dust? not Quite, yet We’re gaining There,” clever dust can eventually consists “Tiny digital sensors, strewn around the glove, gathering every sorts that information and communicating with powerful computer networks to monitor, measure, and understand the physical people in new ways.”

(Transition) now that we’ve check what clever dust is, let’s switch gears and also talk about some of the armed forces applications for clever dust.

Main suggest II: since smart dust was originally conceptualized under a grant from DARPA, military uses of clever dust have actually been extensively theorized and examined.

According to the clever dust website, clever dust can eventually be offered for “battlefield surveillance, contract monitoring, transport monitoring, scud hunting” and other clear army applications.

Probably the number one benefit of smart dust in the military atmosphere is its security abilities.

significant Scott Dickson, in a Blue Horizons document written because that the united state Air Force center for Strategy and Technology’s Air battle College, sees clever dust together helping the military in battlespace awareness, homeland security, and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) identification. Furthermore, significant Dickson likewise believes it might be possible to produce smart dust that has actually the ability to defeat communications jamming equipment created by foreign governments, i m sorry could aid the US armed forces not just communicate among itself, but could additionally increase communications with civilians in military combat zones. according to a 2010 short article written by Jessica Griggs in new Scientist, among the first benefits of smart dust could be an early defense warning for room storms and other debris that might be catastrophic.

(Transition) currently that we’ve explored several of the armed forces benefits of smart dust, let’s switch gears and see exactly how smart dust may have the ability to have an influence on our daily lives.

Main allude III: according to the clever dust job website, smart dust could quickly end up being a common part of our daily lives.

Everything from pasting smart dust particles to our finger advice to develop a virtual computer system keyboard to inventory regulate to product quality manage have been questioned as possible applications for smart dust.

Steve Lohr, in his 2010 New York Times article, wrote, “The applications because that sensor-based computing, experts say, include structures that manage their own power use, bridges that sense motion and metal tiredness to tell engineers they need repairs, cars the track website traffic patterns and also report potholes, and also fruit and also vegetable shipments that tell grocers when they ripen and also begin come spoil.”

Medically, follow to the clever dust website, smart dust could aid disabled individuals interface through computers.

Theoretically, we could all be injected through smart dust, i beg your pardon relays information to our physicians and detects adverse transforms to our body instantly. Clever dust could detect the microscope formations of facility cells or alarm us when we’ve been infected by a bacterium or virus, which could speed up treatment and also prolong all of our lives.

(Transition) Today, we’ve explored what clever dust is, how smart dust can be used by the united state military, and how smart dust could affect all the our lives in the near future.

Conclusion: While clever dust is conveniently transferring from science fiction to scientific research fact, specialists agree the the complete potential of smart dust will probably not happen until 2025. Clever dust is absolutely in our close to future, but swarms of smart dust eating civilization as was shown in Michael Crichton’s 2002 novel, Prey, no reality. However, just like any technological advance, there room definite honest considerations and also worries concerned smart dust. Also Dr. Kris Pister’s smart dust task website admits that as smart dust becomes an ext readily available, one of the trade-offs will certainly be privacy. Pister responds to these critiques by saying, “As an engineer, or a scientist, or a hair stylist, everyone requirements to evaluate what they do in regards to its optimistic and negative effect. If I believed that the negatives of functioning on this task were higher than or even comparable to the positives, i wouldn’t be working on it. As it turns out, ns think that the potential benefits of this an innovation far outweigh the risks to personal privacy.”


Crichton, M. (2002). Prey. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Griggs, J. (2010, February 6). Clever dust to administer solar at an early stage warning defense. New Scientist, 205(2746), 22.

Kahn, J. M., Katz, R. H., & Pister, K. S. J. (2000). Arising challenges: mobile networking because that “smart dust.” Journal the Communications and also Networks, 2, 188–196.

Lohr, S. (2010, January 30). Clever dust? not quite, but we’re gaining there. New York Times. Retrieved native

Pister, K., Kahn, J., & Boser, B. (n.d.). Clever dust: Autonomous sensing and communication in ~ the cubic millimeter. Retrieved indigenous

Steel, D. (2005, March). Clever dust: UH ISRC an innovation briefing. Retrieved indigenous

Vogelstein, F., Boyle, M., Lewis, P., Kirkpatrick, D., Lashinsky, A.,…Chen, C. (2004, February 23). 10 technology trends to gambling on. Fortune, 149(4), 74–88.

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Warneke, B., Last, M., Liebowitz, B., & Pister, K. S. J. (2001). Clever dust: interacting with a cubic millimeter computer. Computer, 31, 44–51.