Restriction enzyme: one enzyme from bacteria the canrecognize certain base sequences in DNA and also cut the DNA at that website (the restriction site). A limit enzyme acts together a biochemical scissors. Likewise called a restriction endonuclease.A limit enzyme is a protein created by bacteria the cleaves DNA at certain sites. Bacteria usage restriction enzyme to defend versus bacterial viruses dubbed bacteriophages (or phage). Once a phage infects a bacteria, it inserts its DNA into the bacteria so the it could be replicated. The restriction enzyme avoids replication the the phage DNA by cutting it into countless pieces. Restriction enzymes were named for their capability to restrict, or limit, the variety of strains of bacter that deserve to infect bacteria. Border enzymes deserve to be isolated from bacteria and used in the activities to cut DNA. They space indispensable devices in recombinant DNA modern technology and genetic engineering. Each restriction enzyme recognizes a short, particular sequence the nucleotide bases (the four simple chemical subunits the the linear double-stranded DNA molecule-- adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine). This stretches in the DNA are referred to as recognition sequences and are randomly spread throughout the DNA. Various bacterial types make restriction enzymes that recognize different nucleotide sequences. After a limit endonuclease establish a sequence, the cuts with the DNA molecule by catalyzing the hydrolysis (splitting the a chemistry bond by addition of a water molecule) that the bond between adjacent nucleotides. Bacteria avoid their own DNA from being degraded in this way by disguising their acknowledgment sequences. Enzymes dubbed methylases add methyl groups (--CH3) to adenin or cytosine bases within the acknowledgment sequence, which is therefore modified and also protected indigenous the endonuclease. The restriction enzyme and also its equivalent methylase constitute the restriction-modification system of a bacter species.All limit enzymes are different. There space three great of limit enzymes, designated varieties I, II, and also III. Types I and also III enzyme are similar in that both restriction and also methylase activities are lugged out by one big enzyme complex, in contrast to the type II system, in i beg your pardon the border enzyme is elevation of that is methylase. Type II border enzymes additionally differ native the various other two types in that they cleave DNA at particular sites in ~ the recognition site; the rather cleave DNA randomly, sometimes hundreds of bases indigenous the recognition sequence. Restriction enzymes were originally discovered and also characterized by the molecule biologists Werner Arber, Hamilton O. Smith, and Daniel Nathans who common the 1978 Nobel prize in medicine. The capacity of restriction enzyme to reduced DNA at an accurate locations has permitted researchers to isolate gene-containing fragments and also recombine castle with other molecules of DNA. Much more than 2,500 form II restriction enzymes have actually been figured out from a variety of bacterial species.
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This enzymes recognize around 200 distinctive sequences, i m sorry are four to eight bases in length.