atlantic is to s as novel is to

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atlantic is to s as novel is to

There was a time before Atlantic history. 200 million year ago, in the at an early stage Jurassicno waters developed either barriers or bridges among what are currently the Americas, Europe and Africa.These land–masses created a solitary supercontinent that Pangea till tectonic shifts progressively pushed lock apart.The movement proceeds to this day, together the Atlantic container expands at around the same rate that the Pacific’s contracts: approximately two centimetres a year.The Atlantic Ocean, at an typical of around 4000 kilometres wide and 4 kilometre deep, is no as broador extensive as the Pacificthe Earth’s biggest ocean by far, although its multi–continental coast is higher than the of the Pacific and Indian oceans combined.

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1- The Atlantic is now however a suburb that the human being ocean.Despite the finest efforts of international institutions to demarcate that precisely.2- the Atlantic is inextricably part of world history, end geological time and on a person scale.There was Atlantic history long before there to be Atlantic historians.There were backgrounds roughly the Atlantic, follow me its shores and within its coastal waters.There were histories in the Atlantic, ~ above its islands and also over its open seas.And there were histories across the Atlantic, start with the Norse trips in the eleventh century and also then coming to be repeatableand continual in both directions from the early sixteenth century onwards, long after the Indian and also Pacific oceans had come to be so widely navigable.

3- For practically five centuries, this memories and also experiences comprised the background of countless Atlantics — north and south, eastern and also western; Amerindian and African;

4- enslaved and also free; Spanish and also Portuguese;

5- British, French, Dutch, creole and also hybrid

6–but not yet a single Atlantic history.More comprehensively Atlantic histories started to appear in the late nineteenth century;later, various varieties of political and geo–political Atlanticism prospered after two human being wars,but it would certainly take until the latter part of the twenty century because that self–identified Atlantic historians to come top top the scene.Only in the early part of our own century walk Atlantic background briefly emerge as a discrete field of study before oceanic history and global history engulfed it when more.

7– In retrospect, Atlantic history appears to have actually peaked in the at an early stage 2000s. ‘We space all Atlantic historians now’,I provocatively claimed in 2002, a infamous line generally quoted there is no its sceptical codicil:‘or for this reason it would certainly seem indigenous the explosion of attention in the Atlantic and the Atlantic world as subjects ofstudy among historians the North and also South America, the Caribbean, Africa and western Europe.’

8- Within much less than a decade, virtually thirty collective volumes top top Atlantic background had appeared alongside many articles, theses and also monographs (and not simply by historians).

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest the the world’s oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi).It covers roughly 20 percent of Earth’s surface ar and around 29 percent the its water surface area.It is recognized to separate the “Old World” indigenous the “New World” in the europe perception the the World.

The Atlantic s occupies an elongated, S-shaped container extending longitudinally in between Europeand Africa to the east, and also the ameri to the west.As one ingredient of the interconnected civilization Ocean, that is associated in the north to the Arctic Ocean,to the Pacific s in the southwest, the Indian ocean in the southeastand the Southern ocean in the south (other meanings describe the Atlantic as prolonging southward to Antarctica).

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The oldest well-known mentions of one “Atlantic” sea come indigenous Stesichorus approximately mid-sixth century BC (Sch. A. R. 1. 211):Atlantikôi pelágei (Greek: Ἀτλαντικῷ πελάγει; English: ‘the Atlantic sea’; etym. ‘Sea of Atlas’)and in The histories of Herodotus roughly 450 BC (Hdt. 1.202.4):Atlantis thalassa (Greek: Ἀτλαντὶς θάλασσα; English: ‘Sea the Atlas’ or ‘the Atlantic sea’)where the name describes “the sea beyond the pillars that Heracles” i beg your pardon is said to be part of the sea that surrounds every land.

In this uses, the name describes Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythologywho supported the heavens and who later showed up as a frontispiece in medieval maps and additionally lent his surname to contemporary atlases.On the other hand, to beforehand Greek sailors and in ancient Greek mythological literary works such together the Iliad and also the Odysseythis all-encompassing s was instead known together Oceanus, the huge river that encircled the world;in comparison to the fastened seas famous to the Greeks: the Mediterranean and also the black color Sea.In contrast, the term “Atlantic” initially referred especially to the Atlas mountains in Moroccoand the sea turn off the Strait that Gibraltar and also the north African coast.The Greek word thalassa has been reused by researchers for the vast Panthalassa s that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea thousands of millions of years ago.

The term “Aethiopian Ocean“, derived from ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the southern Atlantic together late together the mid-19th century.During the period of Discovery, the Atlantic was likewise known come English cartographers together the good Western Ocean.

The pond is a term often used by British and also American speaker in reference to the northern Atlantic Ocean, as a kind of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.It is used largely when introduce to events or circumstances “on this side of the pond” or “on the various other side the the pond”rather than to comment on the s itself.

The term dates to 1640, very first appearing in print in pamphlet released throughout the power of Charles Iand reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington’s historical Notices the Events emerging Chiefly in The regime of Charles I

Extent and also data

For finish lists the marginal seas and also borders the the Atlantic, see List the seas § Atlantic Ocean, and also Borders that the oceans § Atlantic Ocean.

The worldwide Hydrographic organization (IHO) defined the borders of the oceans and also seas in 1953and countries, view for instance the CIA human being Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and variety of oceans and seas vary.

The Atlantic ocean is bounded on the west through North and South America.It connects to the Arctic s through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea.To the east, the borders of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait the Gibraltar(where that connects with the Mediterranean Sea—one that its marginal seas—and, in turn, the black Sea,both the which also touch top top Asia) and Africa.

In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean. The 20° east meridian, running southern from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.

The Atlantic has actually irregular shores indented by numerous bays, gulfs and also seas.These incorporate the Baltic Sea, black color Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the DrakePassage, Gulf the Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, phibìc Sea, Norwegian Sea, almost every one of the Scotia Sea, and also other tributary water bodies. Consisting of these marginal seas the coastline line the the Atlantic measures 111,866 km (69,510 mi) compared to 135,663 km (84,297 mi) for the Pacific.

Including that marginal seas, the Atlantic consist of an area the 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi) or 23.5% the the an international ocean and also has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 (74,471,500 cu mi) or 23.3% that the complete volume that the earth’s oceans. Not included its marginal seas, the Atlantic consists 81,760,000 km2 (31,570,000 sq mi) and also has a volume the 305,811,900 km3 (73,368,200 cu mi). The phibìc Atlantic consists 41,490,000 km2 (16,020,000 sq mi) (11.5%) and also the southern Atlantic 40,270,000 km2 (15,550,000 sq mi) (11.1%). The mean depth is 3,646 m (11,962 ft) and the best depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,376 m (27,480 ft).

Ocean floor

Continental shelves in the Atlantic are large off Newfoundland, southernmost southern America, and also north-eastern Europe. In the west Atlantic carbonate platforms dominate large areas, for example, the Blake Plateau and also Bermuda Rise. Over there are numerous submarine canyons off north-eastern phibìc America, western Europe, and north-western Africa. Few of these canyons expand along the continental rises and also farther right into the abyssal plains as deep-sea channels.

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In 1922 a historic moment in cartography and oceanography occurred. The USS Stewart provided a navy Sonic Depth Finder to draw a consistent map across the bed that the Atlantic. Various shelves along the spare part of the continents constitute about 11% that the bottom topography with couple of deep networks cut across the continent rise.