Let’s testimonial our accountancy cycle again. We have completed the very first two columns and also now we have the final column which represents the closing (or archive) process.

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Accounting bicycle
1. Analysis Transactions5. Prepare Adjusting journal Entries9. Prepare close up door Entries
2. Prepare newspaper Entries6. Post Adjusting journal Entries10. Short article Closing Entries
3. Short article journal Entries7. Prepare readjusted Trial Balance11. Prepare Post-Closing psychological Balance
4. Prepare Unadjusted trial Balance8. Prepare financial Statements

Accounts space two different groups:

Permanent – balance sheet accounts consisting of assets, liabilities, and most same accounts. This account balances role over into the next period. So, the ending balance the this period will certainly be the start balance for following period.Temporary – revenues, expenses, dividend (or withdrawals) account. This account balances perform not roll over into the next period after closing. The closing process reduces revenue, expense, and also dividends account balances (temporary accounts) to zero so they are all set to get data because that the next accounting period.

Accountants might perform the closing procedure monthly or annually. The closeup of the door entries space the journal entry type of the explain of preserved Earnings. The goal is to make the posted balance of the retained revenue account match what us reported on the explain of retained earnings and also start the next period with a zero balance because that all short-lived accounts.

Remember exactly how at the start of the course us learned the net earnings is added to equity. This is the process to make that happen!

The following video summarizes exactly how to prepare closing entries.

In accounting, we often refer come the process of closing together closing the books. Just revenue, expense, and dividend accounts space closed—not asset, liability, common Stock, or Retained revenue accounts. The four simple steps in the closing procedure are:

Closing the revenue accounts—transferring the credit balances in the revenue accounts to a clearing account referred to as Income Summary.Closing the expense accounts—transferring the debit balances in the price accounts to a clearing account called Income Summary.Closing the Income an overview account—transferring the balance of the Income an overview account come the Retained revenue account.Closing the dividend account—transferring the debit balance of the dividends account to the Retained revenue account.

 Let’s testimonial what we know around these accounts:

Increase withDecrease with

If we desire to do the account balance zero, we will decrease the account. We use a brand-new temporary closing account referred to as income summary to save the closing items till we acquire close income review into maintained Earnings. Come close method to make the balance zero. We will certainly look in ~ the adhering to information because that MicroTrain from the adjusted trial balance:

Retained Earnings $ 6,100
Service Revenue 36,500
Interest Revenue 600
Salaries Expense 18,360
Rent Expense 1,200
Utilities Expense 500
Insurance Expense 200
Supplies Expense 7,000
Depreciation Expense 750

Notice just how the retained revenue balance is $6,100? top top the explain of preserved earnings, us reported the ending balance the retained income to it is in $15,190. We should do the close up door entries to make them match and also zero out the short-lived accounts.

Step 1: near Revenue accounts

Close method to do the balance zero. We watch from the readjusted trial balance that our revenue accounts have a credit transaction balance. To make them zero we want to diminish the balance or execute the opposite. We will certainly debit the revenue accounts and also credit the Income an introduction account. The credit to income summary should same the complete revenue native the income statement.

Service Revenue 36,500
Interest Revenue 600
income Summary 37,100

Step 2: Close Expense accounts

The expense accounts have debit balances for this reason to get rid of their balances we will execute the the opposite or credit transaction the accounts. Just like in step 1, us will usage Income summary as the balance out account but this time we will certainly debit revenue summary. The complete debit to income an introduction should match total prices from the revenue statement.

Income Summary 28,010
incomes Expense 18,360
rent Expense1,200
Utilities Expense500
insurance money Expense200
supplies Expense7,000
Depreciation Expense750

Step 3: Close Income Summary account

At this point, you have actually closed the revenue and also expense account into earnings summary. The balance in income an overview now represents $37,100 credit – $28,010 debit or $9,090 credit transaction balance…does the number it seems to be ~ familiar? It should — income summary should complement net revenue from the revenue statement. We desire to eliminate this credit transaction balance by debiting revenue summary. What walk we carry out with network income? We added it come retained revenue in the statement of kept earnings. Exactly how do we rise an same account in a journal entry? we credit!

Income an introduction (37,100 – 28,010) 9,090
maintained Earnings 9,090

If costs were greater than revenue, us would have net loss. A net loss would decrease retained revenue so we would execute the the opposite in this newspaper entry by debiting kept Earnings and also crediting earnings Summary.

Step 4: Close Dividends (or withdrawals) account

After we include net revenue (or subtract network loss) top top the declare of preserved earnings, what do we execute next? us subtract any dividends to gain the ending retained earnings. This will be the newspaper entry kind of doing this calculation yet be careful because you carry out not want to use the lot of retained earnings but DIVIDENDS. We want to decrease retained income (debit) and also remove the balance in dividends (credit) because that the quantity of the dividends. MicroTrain did not pay dividend this year yet the entry would appear as:

Retained EarningsDiv Amt
DividendsDiv Amt

Div Amt method we will use the DIVIDEND amount and also not the balance in kept earnings.

Anytime we complete journal entries, we constantly need to short article to the exact same ledger cards or T-accounts we have been utilizing all along. Once we post, we execute not change anything indigenous the newspaper entries — us debit (left side) whereby we go in the entries and credit (right side) wherever we did in the entries. The ledger map for income an overview and retained revenue would look favor this:

Account: revenue SummaryDebitCreditBalance
(1) close Revenues 37,100 37,100
(2) nearby Expenses28,010 9,090
(3) Close income Summary 9,090 0

Account: preserved EarningsDebitCreditBalance
Beginning Balance6,100
(3) Close revenue Summary9,09015,190
(4) near Dividends015,190

The balance in dividends, revenues and expenses would all be zero leaving only the permanent accounts because that a post closing psychological balance. The psychological balance shows the ending balances of every asset, liability and equity account remaining. The main change from an readjusted trial balance is revenues, expenses, and dividends room all zero and also their balances have been rolled into retained earnings. We execute not need come show accounts with zero balances on the attempt balances.

MicroTrain’s short article closing attempt balance would be:

Cash 10,000
Accounts Receivable 25,000
Interest Receivable 600
Supplies 1,500
Prepaid Insurance 2,200
Trucks 40,000
Accum. Depreciation-Trucks 750
Accounts Payable 25,000
Unearned Revenue 3,000
Salaries Payable 360
Common Stock 35,000
Retained Earnings 15,190
TOTALS 79,300 79,300

Notice how only the balance in retained revenue has adjusted and it now matches what to be reported as finishing retained income in the statement of kept earnings and also the balance sheet.

Congratulations! You endured the complete accountancy cycle.

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