In might 2017, we posted an short article on Japanese particles and also their purposes. The article listed a general review of the differences between the particles は(wa), が(ga), で(de), に(ni), と(to), も(mo), へ(e), を(wo), の(no), から(kara), まで(made), より(yori), よ(yo), ね(ne), や(ya), and also か(ka). Because that this write-up we will discuss the Japanese particles から(kara), まで(made), だけ(dake) and also しか(shika). This will be the last in the series (for now). 

Quick links to articles:

Though many particles are rather multifaceted and also should not necessarily be assumed of in terms of strict categories, we are dividing them into really general categories for the sake of keeping each particle post from becoming too lengthy.

の (no), よ(yo), ね(ne), and か(ka) room all discovered at the ends of sentences (among other places)で(de), に(ni), and also へ(e) are all used when to express either whereby something takes location or activity towards a location (among other things)は(wa), が(ga), も(mo) room all particles the accompany topics or topics (among various other things)を(wo), と(to) and also より(yori) are all particles that accompany non-topic/non-subject nouns.

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から(kara), まで(made), だけ(dake) and also しか(shika) room all two-syllable corpuscle with somewhat narrow purposes.Japanese particle: Kara から


1.To suggest “from”

When placed straight after a noun or time phrase, から kara is “from”:


Amerika kara kimashita.

I come native America.


Onee-san kara jaketto o karimashita.

I borrowed a jacket from my huge sister/an larger girl.


Raigetsu kara fuyuyasumi desu.

From/starting next month, that is winter vacation.

2. To suggest “because”

When placed directly after a verb or i-adjective, から kara is “because.” that can likewise be supplied as “because” through na-adjectives and nouns, however only if paired v です desu (or だ da, the quick form/casual variation of です desu):


Kawa-chan ga benkyou shiteiru kara, shizuka ni shite kudasai.

Kawa-chan is studying, so you re welcome be quiet.


Kawa-chan ga suki da kara, issho ni benkyou shitai desu.

I prefer Kawa-chan, for this reason I desire to examine together.


Kawa-chan ga yasashii kara, tomodachi ni naritai desu.

Kawa-chan is nice, for this reason I want to come to be friends.

When using から kara together “because,” the verb walk not should be a details tense or politeness level. The an initial sentence above could additionally be written:


Kawa-chan ga benkyou shiteimasu kara, shizuka ni shite kudasai.

Both sentences interpret to the same English sentence, however the latter uses -Masu type for “studying” and so is an ext polite.

Also, から kara deserve to come in ~ the finish of a sentence quite than in the middle of it, as lengthy as it is still in ~ the end of the phrase that is the “reason” component of the sentence:


Shizuka ni shite kudasai. Kawa-chan ga benkyou shiteiru kara.

Please be quiet. Kawa-chan is studying.

Generally speaking, the politeness level the the final verb or copula in her sentence will certainly determine how polite your sentence is. Having short/casual type verbs or copulas in the internal of her sentence does no necessarily do the sentence casual. In fact, when in doubt, the is much better to use short/casual forms in the interior of her sentence even when speak formally to avoid providing your sentence a peculiar sound.

3. To indicate “after”

When the verb preceding から kara is a -Te form verb, から kara means “after” rather than “because.” for example:


Benkyou shite kara, terebi o mimasu.

After studying, I will watch TV.

4. To suggest “and that’s why…”

から kara paired v だ da (as in the short kind of です desu) can likewise be inserted at the beginning of a sentence to median something along the present of “And it is why…”.

Sometimes this is used just to indicate that the previous sentence(s) to be an explanation for the sentence that adheres to the だから da kara, however depending upon just how much attitude it is talked with, it can likewise become rather of an exclamation:


Ashita wa tesuto ga arimasu. Dakara, kyou wa benkyou shinakucha ikemasen.

Tomorrow there is a test. So, now I need to study.



Ashita wa tesuto ga arimasu. Dakara, kyou wa benkyou shinakucha ikenai to itte imashita yo!

Tomorrow there is a test. It is why ns told you, you have to study today!

Japanese Particle: do まで


1.To suggest “until”

まで made is a pretty straightforward particle. In many circumstances, that simply means “until” (until a place or time). The place or time have the right to be particular or vague:


Kono kurasu wa ichi ji kara san ji made desu.

This class is from 1:00 till 3:00.


Umaku hanaseru made, nihongo o renshuu shimasu.

I will exercise Japanese until I can speak proficiently.


Tokyo kara Hiroshima made, nanjikan kakarimasu ka?

How many hours will certainly it take it from Tokyo come Hiroshima?

2. To suggest “by”

If the particle に ni is attached to the bit まで made, its meaning changes to “by” (as in before/by the time of):



Shukudai o ashita made ni teishutsu shinakucha ikemasen.

I have to submit the homework by tomorrow.

Japanese Particle: Shika しか


1. To show “only”

しか shika means “only.” the is inserted after nouns, need to be paired with a an adverse verb or copula, and carries one implication that whatever quantity is being discussed is much less than one might wish:


Enpitsu o ippon shika motteimasen.

I only have actually one pencil.

2. To suggest no choice

しか shika can additionally be placed between a dictionary form verb and also ない nai (or the -Masu type of ない nai, i beg your pardon is ありません arimasen) to median “one has actually no selection but come ” (more literally, “one only has actually ”):



Kasa ga nai kara, ame ga yamu no o matsu shika arimasen.

I don’t have actually an umbrella, therefore I have actually no selection but to wait for the rain to stop.

Japanese Particle: Dake だけ


1.To show only

だけ dake also way “only.” uneven しか shika, however, だけ dake has no an adverse nuance, and does not should be supplied with a an adverse verb or copula.


Enpitsu o ippon dake motteimasu.

I only have one pencil.

This is a basic statement, without the wait of complain that the しか shika sentence over has.

だけ dake can additionally be paired through どれ dore (“which ”) to average “how much/what amount.” どれだけ dore dake deserve to be provided in inquiry sentences, and in explain sentences:


Mainichi, dore dake benkyou shimasu ka?

How lot do you examine every day?


Kawa-chan wa dore dake nihongo ga wakarimasu ka?

How much Japanese go Kawa-chan understand?


Dore dake sagashite mo, kagi ga mitsukeraremasen.

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No matter just how much ns search, i cannot discover my keys.

That’s everything on Japanese particles から kara, まで made, だけ dake and also しか shika for now! This post is likewise the last in our particle short article series. If you have any type of questions around the particles questioned in this article, or if there are other particles the you desire to know much more about that we did no cover in any kind of of our particle articles, leave united state a comment below!