The capability of an atom in a molecule to tempt shared electrons is referred to as electronegativity. When two atoms incorporate, the difference between their electronegativities is an indication of the type of bond that will develop. If the distinction in between the electronegativities of the two atoms is small, neither atom have the right to take the shared electrons totally amethod from the various other atom and also the bond will be covalent. If the difference between the electronegativities is big, the more electronegative atom will certainly take the bonding electrons completely amethod from the other atom (electron transfer will occur) and the bond will certainly be ionic. This is why metals (low electronegativities) bonded via nonmetals (high electronegativities) generally produce ionic compounds.

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A bond might be so polar that an electron actually transfers from one atom to one more, creating a true ionic bond. How execute we judge the degree of polarity? Scientists have devised a range called electronegativity, a scale for judging just how a lot atoms of any type of facet lure electrons. Electronegativity is a unitless number; the higher the number, the more an atom attracts electrons. A prevalent scale for electronegativity is shown in Figure (PageIndex1).

api/deki/files/78265/CK12_Screenshot_9-13-3.png?revision=1&size=bestfit&width=320&height=311" />Figure (PageIndex2) A nonpolar covalent bond is one in which the distribution of electron thickness between the 2 atoms is equal.

The 2 chlorine atoms share the pair of electrons in the single covalent bond equally, and the electron density bordering the (ceCl_2) molecule is symmetrical. Also note that molecules in which the electronegativity difference is incredibly small (

Polar Covalent Bonds

A bond in which the electronegativity distinction in between the atoms is between 0.5 and also 2.0 is referred to as a polar covalent bond. A polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the atoms have actually an unequal attraction for electrons and also so the sharing is unequal. In a polar covalent bond, sometimes sindicate called a polar bond, the distribution of electrons about the molecule is no much longer symmetrical.

Figure (PageIndex3) In the polar covalent bond of (ceHF), the electron thickness is unevenly distributed. Tright here is a higher density (red) close to the fluorine atom, and a lower density (blue) near the hydrogen atom.

An simple method to highlight the unalso electron circulation in a polar covalent bond is to use the Greek letter delta (left( delta ight)).

Figure (PageIndex4) Use of (delta) to suggest partial charge.

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The atom via the greater electronegativity acquires a partial negative charge, while the atom through the lesser electronegativity acquires a partial positive charge. The delta symbol is supplied to show that the quantity of charge is much less than one. A crossed arrowhead can likewise be used to show the direction of greater electron density.

the ability of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond is its