Potassium nitrate is only a small section of the total worldwide potassium fertilizer market and is offered as for manufacturing of countless high-value specialty crops and also sometimes in grain and fiber crops.
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From: Encyclopedia the Analytical science (Third Edition), 2019
Allen V. Barker, in Encyclopedia of Analytical science (Third Edition), 2019
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Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Detection that Explosives
Joel B. Miller, in Counterterrorist Detection approaches of Explosives, 2007
5.1.6 Potassium nitrate
Potassium nitrate consists of a single nitrogen. That frequency is greater than the of the nitrate ion in ammonium nitrate. The T 1s and T 2es of the two nitrate ion transitions room similar; therefore, your detection sensitivities room similar. The potassium ion likewise can be detected through NQR. The resonance is higher in frequency than the nitrogen and also its T 1 is shorter, however its heat is more comprehensive and T 2e is shorter. Table 6 perform NQR parameter because that nitrogen (1) and potassium (2) <119,125>.
Table 6. NQR parameters because that selected currently of potassium nitrate
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A.M. Fan, in Encyclopedia the Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014
Sodium and potassium nitrate have been tested for potential carcinogenicity, alone and in combination with nitrosatable compounds. Nitrosating agents deserve to be ingested indigenous food and drinking water, and synthesized native ingested nitrate and nitrite. Nitrosating agents deserve to react under particular conditions v nitrosatable link to kind N-nitrosamines and also N-nitrosamides, some of which are pet carcinogens. Nitrosating agents (e.g., nitrous acid and also nitrous anhydride) that arise indigenous nitrite under acidic gastric conditions can react through amines or amides to form nitrosamines or nitrosamides, and the induction the tumors in animals via endogenous synthesis of N-nitroso compounds has been demonstrated. Nitrosamines must be caused metabolically through cytochrome P450 enzymes to electrophilic intermediates to exert a carcinogenic effect, if nitrosamides room direct-acting carcinogens. Ascorbic mountain is one inhibitor of nitrosation reactions. It has been shown to lower the incidence that tumors in pet experiments, and reduce the hazard for cancer the is connected with ingested nitrite in epidemiological studies.
NTP chronic bioassay research studies in rats and male mouse did not present carcinogenicity where nitrate was administered alone in drinking water or diet (three studies in mice and four studies in rats) or was coadministered v nitrosatable compounds, and also when nitrite was given alone in the diet by gavage or in the drinking water to rats and also mice.
Various ecological studies, case-control studies, and cohort studies conducted worldwide on the relationship between human exposure to nitrate and also the threat for various cancers reported inconsistent results. These to be reviewed by the International firm for research study in Cancer (IARC) and also included studies of: (1) cancers the the colon, liver, pancreas, and rectum in Canada, China, Slovakia, and also Thailand; (2) leukemia and also lymphoma in Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, Italy, Slovakia, the united Kingdom, and the USA; (3) gastric and esophageal tumors in China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Poland, Scotland, Spain, Sweden, the joined Kingdom, and the USA; (4) tumors that the worried system, largely brain, in Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Israel, and also the USA; and also (5) genital and also urinary tract tumors in Denmark, Egypt, Germany, Slovakia, Spain, and also the USA. An increased risk the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and urinary bladder to be reported in some studies however not rather at comparable exposure level of nitrate in drinking water. Meta-analysis that prospective, case-control, and also cohort studies reported greater threats for colorectal cancer connected with intake of processed meat.
IARC concluded that ingested nitrate under problems that result in endogenous nitrosation is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). The underlying device for the carcinogenicity determination is endogenous nitrosation that results in the development of N-nitroso compounds, few of which are known carcinogens. There is an energetic endogenous nitrogen cycle in people wherein nitrosating agents the arise from nitrite under acidic gastric conditions react conveniently with nitrosatable compounds, especially secondary amines and amides, to create N-nitroso compounds. These nitrosating problems are magnified following sloop down of added nitrate, nitrite, or nitrosatable compounds. Specifically, because that nitrate alone, IARC found that over there is inadequate evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity that nitrate in food. There is inadequate evidence in human beings for the carcinogenicity the nitrate in drink water. Over there is inadequate evidence in experimental pets for the carcinogenicity the nitrate. Because that nitrite, in food, IARC uncovered that that is connected with an raised incidence the stomach cancer. Over there is sufficient evidence in experimental pets for the carcinogenicity that nitrite in combination with amines or amides. Over there is limited evidence in experimental animals for the carcinogenicity that nitrite per se.
More current studies after ~ the IARC evaluation did no report one association in between nitrate in water and also non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast, bladder, colon, urinary, and also pancreatic cancer. Researches on dietary intake the nitrate/nitrite reported part associations with raised risk that bladder cancer, esophageal squamous cabinet carcinomas, colorectal cancer, and thyroid cancer. Researches in Iowa report no association to renal cabinet carcinoma (>5 and also >10 ppm nitrate-N); no association v non-Hodgkin lymphoma (below 3 ppm); and also increased threat of thyroid cancer in older women (>5 ppm nitrate because that 5 year or longer, family member risk = 2.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.2) (no combination with pervasiveness of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism). Study on dietary intake the nitrate and also nitrite (National institutes of Health-American association of retired Persons Diet and Health Study) said a duty and more studies ~ above ovarian and thyroid cancer risk and also pancreatic cancer in men.
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Overall, interpretation of the data is facility by various determinants such as the amount of nitrate/nitrite ingested, the concomitant sloop down of nitrosation cofactors and also precursors, certain factors that rise nitrosation, and also some research limitations.