Covalent bonding occurs as soon as pairs of electron are common by atoms. Atoms will certainly covalently bond with various other atoms in order come gain much more stability, which is acquired by creating a full electron shell. By sharing their outer many (valence) electrons, atoms have the right to fill up their external electron shell and gain stability. Nonmetals will readily type covalent bonds with other nonmetals in bespeak to acquire stability, and can form anywhere between one to three covalent binding with other nonmetals depending on how plenty of valence electrons they posses. Although that is stated that atom share electrons as soon as they kind covalent bonds, they execute not generally share the electrons equally.

You are watching: How many valence electrons are available for bonding in silicon?


Only once two atom of the very same element kind a covalent bond space the mutual electrons actually common equally in between the atoms. Once atoms of different aspects share electrons through covalent bonding, the electron will be drawn an ext toward the atom through the greater electronegativity bring about a polar covalent bond. When contrasted to ionic compounds, covalent link usually have a lower melting and also boiling point, and have less of a tendency to dissolve in water. Covalent compounds deserve to be in a gas, liquid, or heavy state and also do no conduct electricity or warm well. The species of covalent bonds can be differentiated by looking in ~ the Lewis dot structure of the molecule. Because that each molecule, over there are different names for pairs of electrons, escape if the is shared or not. A pair that electrons that is shared in between two atoms is referred to as a bond pair. A pair the electrons that is not shared in between two atoms is referred to as a lone pair.

Octet Rule

The Octet Rule requires all atom in a molecule to have 8 valence electrons--either through sharing, shedding or getting electrons--to become stable. For Covalent bonds, atoms often tend to share their electrons with each other to accomplish the Octet Rule. It requires 8 electrons because that is the quantity of electrons required to to fill a s- and p- orbital (electron configuration); likewise known as a noble gas configuration. Each atom wants to come to be as stable as the noble gases that have their external valence shell filled since noble gases have actually a charge of 0. Although it is crucial to remember the "magic number", 8, note that over there are many Octet preeminence exceptions.

Example: as you have the right to see native the picture below, Phosphorus has actually only 5 electrons in its outer shell (bolded in red). Argon has a complete of 8 electrons (bolded in red), which satisfies the Octet Rule. Phosphorus needs to obtain 3 electron to fulfill the Octet Rule. It wants to be like Argon who has actually a full outer valence shell.



Below is a Lewis dot framework of Carbon dioxide demonstrating a double bond. As you have the right to see indigenous the picture below, Carbon dioxide has actually a total of 1 Carbon atom and 2 Oxygen atoms. Each Oxygen atom has actually 6 valence electrons whereas the Carbon atom only has actually 4 valence electrons. To fulfill the Octet Rule, Carbon demands 4 an ext valence electrons. Due to the fact that each Oxygen atom has actually 3 lone pairs of electrons, they have the right to each share 1 pair that electrons through Carbon; as a result, filling Carbon"s external valence shell (Satisfying the Octet Rule).


Example 3: Acetylene

Below is a Lewis dot framework of Acetylene demonstrating a triple bond. As you can see from the photo below, Acetylene has a full of 2 Carbon atoms and also 2 Hydrogen atoms. Every Hydrogen atom has actually 1 valence electron whereas every Carbon atom has actually 4 valence electrons. Every Carbon demands 4 much more electrons and each Hydrogen demands 1 an ext electron. Hydrogen shares its only electron v Carbon to get a full valence shell. Now Carbon has actually 5 electrons. Because each Carbon atom has actually 5 electrons--1 solitary bond and also 3 unpaired electrons--the two Carbons can share your unpaired electrons, creating a triple bond. Currently all the atoms are happy with their complete outer valence shell.


Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A Nonpolar Covalent Bond is developed when atom share their electrons equally. This typically occurs once two atom have similar or the very same electron affinity. The closer the worths of your electron affinity, the more powerful the attraction. This wake up in gas molecules; likewise known as diatomic elements. Nonpolar covalent bonds have actually a comparable concept as polar covalent bonds; the atom with the higher electronegativity will draw away the electron indigenous the weaker one. Since this explain is true--if we use this to our diatomic molecules--all the atoms will have actually the very same electronegativity since they are the same kind the element; thus, the electronegativities will certainly cancel each other out and will have actually a charge of 0 (i.e., a nonpolar covalent bond).

Examples that gas molecule that have actually a nonpolar covalent bond: Hydrogen gas atom, Nitrogen gas atoms, etc.

See more: Which Best Describes What People Could Buy On Credit In The 1920S?


As you can see native the snapshot above, Hydrogen gas has a full of 2 Hydrogen atoms. Each Hydrogen atom has actually 1 valence electron. Because Hydrogen deserve to only fit a max of 2 valence electron in the orbital, each Hydrogen atom only demands 1 electron. Each atom has 1 valence electron, therefore they have the right to just share, offering each atom 2 electrons each.