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Key People:Irving LangmuirGilbert N. Lewis...(Show more)Related Topics:conjugated systempi bondsigma bondcatenationsingle bond...(Show more)

covalent bond, in chemistry, the interatomic link that outcomes from the sharing of an electron pair in between two atoms. The binding occurs from the electrostatic attraction of their nuclei for the exact same electrons. A covalent bond creates when the external inspection atoms have a lower complete energy than that of extensively separated atoms.

A quick treatment the covalent bonds follows. For complete treatment, see chemistry bonding: Covalent bonds.

Molecules that have covalent linkages include the not natural substances hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, water, and also ammonia (H2, N2, Cl2, H2O, NH3) in addition to all necessary compounds. In structural depictions of molecules, covalent bond are suggested by solid currently connecting pairs of atoms; e.g.,


A single line suggests a bond in between two atoms (i.e., entailing one electron pair), dual lines (=) show a dual bond in between two atoms (i.e., involving two electron pairs), and triple present (≡) stand for a triple bond, as found, because that example, in carbon monoxide (C≡O). Solitary bonds consists one sigma (σ) bond, double bonds have actually one σ and also one pi (π) bond, and triple bonds have one σ and two π bonds.

Covalent bonds room directional, definition that atoms so bonded prefer certain orientations relative to one another; this in turn offers molecules definite shapes, together in the angular (bent) framework of the H2O molecule. Covalent bonds in between identical atoms (as in H2) are nonpolar—i.e., electrically uniform—while those in between unlike atoms space polar—i.e., one atom is contempt negatively charged and also the other is slightly positively charged. This partial ionic personality of covalent bonds increases with the distinction in the electronegativities the the two atoms. See also ionic bond.

When no one of the aspects in a compound is a metal, no atoms in the compound have an ionization energy low sufficient for electron loss to it is in likely. In such a case, covalence prevails. Together a general rule, covalent bond are formed between elements lying toward the best in the periodic table (i.e., the nonmetals). Molecule of identical atoms, such together H2 and buckminsterfullerene (C60), are likewise held together by covalent bonds.

Lewis formulation that a covalent bond

The idea that 2 electrons can be shared between two atoms and serve as the link between them was very first introduced in 1916 by the American chemist G.N. Lewis, who defined the development of together bonds together resulting indigenous the tendencies of particular atoms to integrate with one one more in order because that both to have the electronic structure that a corresponding noble-gas atom.

In Lewis terms a covalent bond is a shared electron pair. The bond between a hydrogen atom and also a chlorine atom in hydrogen chloride is formulated as follows:


In a Lewis structure of a covalent compound, the shared electron pair between the hydrogen and also chlorine ion is stood for by a line. The electron pair is called a bonding pair; the three various other pairs of electron on the chlorine atom are called lone pairs and also play no direct role in holding the two atoms together.

Each atom in the hydrogen chloride molecule attains a closed-shell octet of electron by sharing and hence achieves a best lowering of energy. In general, one incomplete shell way that part attracting power of a nucleus might be wasted, and adding electrons past a closed covering would entail the energetic disadvantage of start the next shell of the atom concerned. Lewis’s octet rule is again applicable and is watched to represent the extreme method of afford lower power rather 보다 being a goal in itself.

A covalent bond creates if the external inspection atoms have a lower total energy 보다 the widely separated atoms. The most basic interpretation the the to decrease in power that occurs when electrons are common is the both electron lie between two attracting centres (the nuclei the the two atoms connected by the bond) and also hence lie reduced in energy than when they suffer the attraction of a solitary centre.

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Lewis structures of more complicated molecules deserve to be built quite simply by extending the process that has actually been described for hydrogen chloride. First, the valence electrons that are easily accessible for bonding room counted (2 × 1 + 6 = 8 in H2O, because that example, and 4 + 4 × 7 = 32 in carbon tetrachloride, CCl4), and also the chemical symbols for the elements are inserted in the plan that reflects which are neighbours:


Next, one bonding pair is included between each connected pair of atoms:


The staying electrons room then included to the atoms in together a means that every atom has a re-publishing in one octet of electrons (this is the octet-rule part of the procedure):


Finally, each bonding pair is represented by a dash:


(Note the Lewis structures perform not necessarily present the actual form of the molecule, only the topological sample of your bonds.)

In part older formulations of Lewis structures, a difference was made between bonds formed by electrons that have been offered by both atoms (as in H―Cl, wherein one mutual electron have the right to be pertained to as offered by the hydrogen atom and also the various other by the chlorine atom) and also covalent bonds created when both electrons can be pertained to as offered by one atom, together in the development of OH− native O2− and also H+. Together a link was called a coordinate covalent bond or a dative bond and symbolized O → H−. However, the obstacles encountered in the attempt to save track the the origin of bonding electrons and the ide that a coordinate covalent bond differs somehow from a covalent shortcut (it go not) have led come this consumption falling right into disfavour.