Learning Objectives

Identify the inquiries to ask in picking the appropriate kind of property for a business.Describe the single proprietorship and partnership creates of organization, and also specify the advantages and disadvantages.Identify the different types of partnerships, and explain the prestige of a cooperation agreement.Explain just how corporations space formed and how they operate.Discuss the benefits and defect of the corporate kind of ownership.Examine special types of organization ownership, including limited-liability companies, and also not-for-profit corporations.Define mergers and acquisitions, and also explain why carriers are motivated to unify or gain other companies.

You are watching: Corporations distribute profits to their owners in the form of

The ice cream Cream Men

Who would have actually thought it? 2 ex-hippies with strong interests in social activism would end up starting one of the best-known ice cream cream service providers in the country—Ben & Jerry’s. Maybe it was supposed to be. Ben Cohen (the “Ben” of Ben & Jerry’s) constantly had a fascination with ice cream. Together a child, he made his very own mixtures by shattering his favorite cookies and candies right into his ice cream. But it wasn’t until his senior year in high institution that he ended up being an main “ice cream man,” happily driving his van through areas filled with children eager come buy his ice cream cream pops. After ~ high school, Ben tried college however it wasn’t for him. That attended Colgate university for a year and also a half before the dropped the end to go back to his actual love: being an ice cream man. The tried college again—this time in ~ Skidmore, wherein he studied pottery and jewelry making—but, in spite of his choice of courses, still didn’t like it.

Figure 6.1: Ben Cohen and also Jerry greenfield in 2010

In the meantime, Jerry green field (the “Jerry” the Ben & Jerry’s) was adhering to a comparable path. He specialty in pre-med in ~ Oberlin university in the really hopes of one day coming to be a doctor. However he had to provide up on this goal as soon as he was not embraced into medical school. Top top a confident note, though, his college education steered him into a more financially rewarding field: the world of ice cream cream making. He acquired his very first peek in ~ the ice cream cream sector when he worked as a scooper in the student cafeteria in ~ Oberlin. So, fourteen year after they very first met on the junior high college track team, Ben and also Jerry reunited and decided to enter ice cream making huge time. They moved to Burlington, Vermont—a college town in need of an ice cream parlor—and perfect a $5 correspondence food from pen State ~ above making ice cream cream. After obtaining an A in the course—not surprising, offered that the tests were open up book—they took the plunge: with their life savings of $8,000 and also $4,000 of borrowed funds they set up an ice cream shop in a made-over gas station on a liven street corner in Burlington.1 The next big decision was which form of business ownership was ideal for them. This chapter introduces you to your options.

Factors to Consider

If you’re starting a brand-new business, you need to decide i beg your pardon legal form of property is best for you and also your business. Do you desire to own the organization yourself and also operate together a sole proprietorship? Or, perform you want to re-publishing ownership, operating as a partnership or a corporation? before we talk about the pros and also cons of these three species of ownership, let’s address some that the inquiries that you’d probably ask yourself in picking the proper legal kind for your business.

In setting up her business, perform you want to minimize the prices of obtaining started? carry out you hope to avoid complex government regulations and reporting requirements?How much manage would girlfriend like? how much duty for to run the company are you willing to share? What around sharing the profits?Do you want to stop special taxes?Do you have all the an abilities needed to operation the business?Are you likely to get in addition to your co-owners end an extended duration of time?Is it necessary to you the the organization survive you?What room your gaue won needs and also how carry out you plan to finance your company?How much personal exposure to liability room you ready to accept? carry out you feel uneasy around accepting an individual liability for the actions of fellow owners?

No single kind of ownership will offer you every little thing you desire. You’ll need to make part trade-offs. Because each option has both benefits and disadvantages, your task is to decision which one supplies the functions that room most important to you. In the adhering to sections fine compare 3 ownership alternatives (sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation) on these eight dimensions.

Sole Proprietorship and also its Advantages

In a sole proprietorship, as the owner, friend have finish control over your business. You make all essential decisions and are typically responsible for all day-to-day activities. In exchange because that assuming every this responsibility, you acquire all the revenue earned through the business. Profits earned are taxed as personal income, so friend don’t have to pay any kind of special federal and state income taxes.

Disadvantages of single Proprietorships

For plenty of people, however, the single proprietorship is not suitable. The flip side of enjoying finish control is having actually to supply all the various talents that may be important to make the service a success. And also when you’re gone, the business dissolves. You likewise have to count on your very own resources for financing: in effect, you space the business and also any money obtained by the organization is loaned to you personally. Even much more important, the sole proprietor bears unlimited liability for any kind of losses incurred by the business. The principle of unlimited personal liability means that if the company incurs a blame or ill a catastrophe (say, acquiring sued for resulting in an injury to someone), the owner is personally liable. As a single proprietor, you put your personal assets (your financial institution account, her car, maybe also your home) at risk for the benefits of your business. You can lessen your risk with insurance, yet your liability exposure have the right to still be substantial. Given that Ben and also Jerry made decision to start their ice cream business together (and thus the company was no owned by only one person), they could not set their agency up as a single proprietorship.


A partnership (or general partnership) is a service owned jointly by two or more people. About 10 percent of U.S. Businesses are partnerships2 and also though the vast majority are small, part are quite large. Because that example, the big four public bookkeeping firms are partnerships. Setup up a partnership is more complex than setup up a single proprietorship, however it’s still fairly easy and also inexpensive. The cost varies according to size and complexity. It’s feasible to kind a straightforward partnership without the aid of a lawyer or an accountant, despite it’s usually a an excellent idea to get professional advice.

Professionals can help you identify and also resolve worries that might later create disputes among partners.

The partnership Agreement

The influence of disputes can be reduced if the partners have actually executed a well-planned partnership agreement that mentions everyone’s rights and responsibilities. The commitment might administer such details together the following:

Amount that cash and other contribute to it is in made by each partner division of partnership earnings (or loss)Partner responsibilities—who go whatConditions under i m sorry a partner have the right to sell an interest in the companyConditions because that dissolving the partnershipConditions because that settling disputes

Unlimited Liability and also the Partnership

A significant problem with partnerships, as with sole proprietorships, is unlimited liability: in this case, each partner is personally responsible not only for his or her own actions but also for the action of all the partners. If your partner in an architecture firm makes a wrong that causes a structure to collapse, the loss your business incurs results you just as much as it would him or her. And also here’s the really bad news: if the business doesn’t have the cash or various other assets to cover losses, you deserve to be personally sue for the quantity owed. In other words, the party who experienced a loss because of the error have the right to sue you for your personal assets. Many people are understandably wake up to get in into partnerships because of unlimited liability. Particular forms the businesses enable owners to limit their liability. This include limited partnerships and corporations.

Limited Partnerships

The law permits service owners to form a limited partnership which has two varieties of partners: a single general partner who runs the business and also is responsible because that its liabilities, and also any number of limited partners who have minimal involvement in the business and whose losses are restricted to the lot of their investment.

Advantages and also Disadvantages the Partnerships

The partnership has several benefits over the sole proprietorship. First, the brings with each other a varied group that talented individuals who share duty for running the business. Second, it makes financing easier: the service can draw on the financial resources of a number of individuals. The partners not only add funds to the organization but can additionally use an individual resources to secure financial institution loans. Finally, continually needn’t be an issue since partners have the right to agree legitimate to allow the cooperation to survive if one or more partners die.

Still, there are some negatives. First, as discussed earlier, partners are subject to unlimited liability. Second, being a partner means that you need to share decision making, and also many civilization aren’t comfortable with that situation. Not surprisingly, partners regularly have differences of opinion on exactly how to operation a business, and disagreements deserve to escalate come the suggest of jeopardizing the continue of the business. Third, in enhancement to sharing ideas, partners likewise share profits. This setup can work-related as long as all partners feel the they’re gift rewarded follow to your efforts and accomplishments, but that isn’t always the case. While the partnership type of property is viewed negatively by some, it was an especially appealing come Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield. Starting their ice cream cream company as a partnership to be inexpensive and also let them combine their limited financial resources and also use their diverse an abilities and talents. As friends they trusted every other and welcomed common decision making and profit sharing. Castle were additionally not wake up to be hosted personally liable for each other’s actions.


A corporation (sometimes called a continual or C-corporation) differs from a single proprietorship and a partnership since it’s a legal reality that is completely separate native the parties who own it. It can enter into binding contracts, buy and also sell property, sue and also be sued, be held responsible for its actions, and also be taxed. Once businesses reach any comprehensive size, that is helpful to organize as a coporation, group so that its owners deserve to limit your liability. Corporations, then, often tend to be much larger, top top average, than businesses using other creates of ownership. As figure 6.2 shows, enterprise account because that 18 percent of every U.S. Businesses yet generate virtually 82 percent of the revenues.3 Most big well-known businesses room corporations, but so are plenty of of the smaller sized firms with which likely you execute business.

Figure 6.2: types of U.S. Businesses

Ownership and also Stock

Corporations are owned by shareholders that invest money in the organization by buying shares of stock. The section of the coporation, group they very own depends ~ above the portion of stock they hold. For example, if a corporation has issued 100 share of stock, and you very own 30 shares, you own 30 percent of the company. The shareholders selected a board of directors, a group of human being (primarily from outside the corporation) who room legally responsible because that governing the corporation. The board oversees the significant policies and also decisions made by the corporation, to adjust goals and also holds administration accountable because that achieving them, and hires and evaluates the top executive, generally referred to as the CEO (chief executive, management officer). The board also approves the circulation of revenue to shareholder in the form of cash payments called dividends.

Benefits of Incorporation

The corporate kind of organization provides several advantages, including minimal liability because that shareholders, greater accessibility to gaue won resources, specialized management, and continuity.

Limited Liability

The most important advantage of incorporation is the limited liability to which shareholders are exposed: they are not responsible for the duties of the corporation, and they have the right to lose no an ext than the amount that they have personally invested in the company. Minimal liability would have actually been a huge plus because that the unfortunate separation, personal, instance whose organization partner melted down their dry clean establishment. Had actually they been incorporated, the copy, group would have actually been liable because that the debts occurs by the fire. If the corporation didn’t have sufficient money to salary the debt, the individual shareholders would not have been mandatory to salary anything. Lock would have actually lost all the money the they’d invested in the business, yet no more.

Financial Resources

Incorporation additionally makes it feasible for businesses come raise accumulation by selling stock. This is a big advantage together a firm grows and also needs more funds to operate and also compete. Depending upon its size and also financial strength, the corporation likewise has an advantage over other creates of organization in getting financial institution loans. An created corporation can borrow its very own funds, however when a little business needs a loan, the financial institution usually needs that it be guaranteed by its owners.

Specialized Management

Because that their dimension and ability to salary high sales commissions and also benefits, corporations are usually able to attract an ext skilled and talented employees than space proprietorships and partnerships.

Continuity and also Transferability

Another benefit of organization is continuity. Because the corporation has a legal life different from the resides of its owners, it have the right to (at least in theory) exist forever.

Transferring property of a coporation, group is easy: shareholders merely sell their stock come others. Some founders, however, desire to limit the transferability of their stock and so choose to operate as a privately-held corporation. The stock in this corporations is hosted by just a couple of individuals, who space not allowed to sell it come the general public.

Companies through no such limitations on share sales are called public corporations; stock is available for revenue to the general public.

Drawbacks come Incorporation

Like sole proprietorships and also partnerships, corporations have actually both optimistic and an adverse aspects. In sole proprietorships and also partnerships, for instance, the people who own and also manage a organization are the very same people. That company managers, however, nothing necessarily own stock, and shareholders nothing necessarily work-related for the company. This situation can be troublesome if the purposes of the two groups differ significantly.

Managers, for example, space often much more interested in career breakthrough than the in its entirety profitability the the company. Stockholders can care more about profits without regard because that the health of employees. This situation is recognized as the agency problem, a dispute of interest natural in a relationship in i beg your pardon one party is an alleged to action in the ideal interest of the other. The is frequently quite complicated to stop self-interest from entering into these situations.

Another drawback to incorporation—one that regularly discourages small businesses native incorporating—is the reality that enterprise are an ext costly to set up. As soon as you incorporate filing and licensing fees with accounting and attorney fees, combine a business could set you earlier by $1,000 come $6,000 or an ext depending top top the size and also scope of your business.4 Additionally, corporations are subject to levels of regulation and governmental oversight that can place a load on little businesses. Finally, corporations space subject to those generally dubbed “double taxation.” Corporations room taxed by the federal and also state governments on your earnings. Once these earnings are spread as dividends, the shareholders pay counting on this dividends. Corporate profits are for this reason taxed twice—the corporation payment the counting the first time and the shareholder pay the taxes the 2nd time.

Five year after beginning their ice cream cream business, Ben Cohen and Jerry greenfield evaluated the pros and also cons of the corporate kind of ownership, and the “pros” won. The major motivator to be the must raise funds to construct a $2 million production facility. Not only did Ben and Jerry decide to move from a partnership to a corporation, but they likewise decided to offer shares of share to the public (and thus end up being a publicly corporation). Your sale of stock to the general public was a little unusual: Ben and Jerry wanted the neighborhood to very own the company, so rather of offering the share to anyone interested in purchase a share, they offered stock to residents of vermouth only. Ben thought that “business has a duty to give earlier to the community from which it draws the support.”5 He wanted the firm to be owned by those who lined up in the gas station to buy cones. The stock to be so popular that one in every hundred Vermont family members bought stock in the company.6 Eventually, as the firm continued come expand, the share was marketed on a nationwide level.

The original version the this chapter had H5P content. This content is not sustained in cloned books. You may want to remove or replace this section.

Other species of service Ownership

In enhancement to the 3 commonly embraced forms of service organization—sole proprietorship, partnership, and regular corporations—some organization owners choose other creates of organization to satisfy their specific needs. Fine look at 2 of this options:

Limited-liability companiesNot-for-profit corporations

Limited-Liability Companies

How would you like a legal form of company that gives the attractive attributes of the three typical forms of company (corporation, sole proprietorship and also partnership) and avoids the unattractive functions of these three company forms? The limited-liability company (LLC) accomplishes exactly that. This type provides organization owners with limited liability (a an essential advantage that corporations) and no “double taxation” (a key advantage of single proprietorships and partnerships). Stop look in ~ the llc in much more detail.

In 1977, Wyoming ended up being the an initial state to permit businesses to operate as limited-liability companies. 20 years later, in 1997, Hawaii became the last state to offer its approval to the new organization form. Because then, the limited-liability company has raised in popularity. The rapid growth was sustained in component by changes in state statutes the permit a limited-liability firm to have just one member. The trend to LLCs have the right to be observed by reading agency names top top the side of trucks or on shop in your city. The is typical to see names such as Jim Evans Tree Care, LLC, and also For-Cats-Only vet Clinic, LLC. But LLCs room not limited to tiny businesses. Service providers such as Crayola, domino Pizza, Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, and iSold it (which helps human being sell their unwanted belongings ~ above eBay) space operating under the limited-liability form of organization.

In a limited-liability company, owners (called members fairly than shareholders) space not personally liable for debts that the company, and its earnings are taxed just once, at the an individual level (thereby eliminating double taxation).

We have touted the benefits of minimal liability protection for one LLC. We now require to suggest out some circumstances under which an llc member (or a shareholder in a corporation) might be held personally liable for the fan of his or her company. A company owner have the right to be held personally responsible if he or she:

Personally promises a organization debt or financial institution loan i beg your pardon the company fails to pay.Fails to salary employment taxes to the government.Engages in fraudulent or illegal behavior that harms the firm or someone else.Does not treat the agency as a separate legal entity, because that example, uses firm assets for personal uses.

Not-for-Profit Corporations

A not-for-profit corporation (sometimes referred to as a nonprofit) is an organization formed to serve part public objective rather 보다 for jae won gain. As lengthy as the organization’s activity is because that charitable, religious, educational, scientific, or literature purposes, it have the right to be exempt from paying earnings taxes. Additionally, individuals and other institutions that add to the not-for-profit corporation have the right to take a taxes deduction because that those contributions. The types of groups that normally apply for nonprofit status vary widely and also include churches, synagogues, mosques, and other areas of worship; museums; universities; and also conservation groups.

There are an ext than 1.5 million not-for-profit institutions in the unified States.7 part are exceptionally well funded, such as the Bill and also Melinda gates Foundation, which has actually an endowment of roughly $40 billion and also has provided away $36.7 billion since its inception.8 Others room nationally recognized, such as unified Way, Goodwill Industries, Habitat for Humanity, and also the Red Cross. Yet the vast bulk is neither wealthy nor famous, however nevertheless makes far-reaching contributions to society.

The original version that this chapter consisted of H5P content. This contents is not sustained in copy books. You may want to eliminate or replace this section.

Mergers and also Acquisitions

The headline read, “Wanted: much more than 2,000 in Google rental Spree.”9 The largest internet search engine in the human being was expose its plan to prosper internally and also increase its labor force by more than 2,000 people, with fifty percent of the hires coming native the unified States and also the other half coming from other countries. The added employees will assist the agency expand into new markets and battle for worldwide talent in the compete Internet details providers industry. As soon as properly executed, internal development benefits the firm.

An alternative approach to development is to merge with or acquire one more company. The reason behind expansion through merger or acquisition is that 1 + 1 = 3: the combined firm is more valuable than the sum of the two different companies. This rationale is attractive come companies encountering competitive pressures. Come grab a bigger re-superstructure of the market and improve profitability, providers will want to become an ext cost efficient by combining with various other companies.

Mergers and Acquisitions

Though lock are regularly used as if they’re synonymous, the terms merger and acquisition average slightly various things. A merger occurs as soon as two companies incorporate to kind a brand-new company. One acquisition is the acquisition of one company by another. An example of a merger is the merger in 2013 of united state Airways and also American Airlines. The combined company, the biggest carrier in the world, flies under the surname American Airlines.

Another instance of an salvation is the acquisition of Reebok by Adidas because that $3.8 billion.10 The deal was intended to provide Adidas a stronger presence in north America and aid the company compete v rival Nike. Once this acquisition was completed, Reebok as a firm ceased to exist, despite Adidas quiet sells pair of shoes under the Reebok brand.

Motives behind Mergers and also Acquisitions

Companies are motivated to unify or acquire other companies for a variety of reasons, consisting of the following.

Gain complementary Products

Acquiring complementary products was the an ideas behind adidas’s acquisition of Reebok. Together Adidas CEO Herbert Hainer stated in a conference call, “This is a once-in- a-lifetime opportunity. This is a perfect fit for both companies, because the service providers are so complementary…. Adidas is grounded in sporting activities performance with such products as a motorized to run shoe and also endorsement faces such superstars as British football player David Beckham. Meanwhile, Reebok plays greatly to the melding of sports and also entertainment v endorsement deals and products through Nelly, Jay-Z, and also 50 Cent. The combination could it is in deadly to Nike.” of course, Nike has continued to thrive, yet one can not blame hyiner for his optimism.11

Attain brand-new Markets or distribution Channels

Gaining new markets was a far-ranging factor in the 2005 closing of us Airways and also America West. United state Airways to be a significant player top top the eastern Coast, the Caribbean, and Europe, when America West was strong in the West. The expectation were the combining the 2 carriers would produce an airline that can reach much more markets than either carrier could do on its own.12

Realize Synergies

The purchase of Pharmacia coporation, group (a sweden pharmaceutical company) by Pfizer (a research-based pharmaceutical firm based in the unified States) in 2003 developed one that the world’s largest drug makers and also pharmaceutical companies, by revenue, in every major market around the globe.13 The acquisition developed an industry huge with much more than $48 exchange rate in revenue and a research-and-development budget plan of more than $7 billion. Every day, virtually forty million people about the world are treated v Pfizer medicines.14 Its succeeding $68 billion purchase of competitor drug machine Wyeth more increased its existence in the medicine market.15

In pursuing this acquisitions, Pfizer likely identified plenty of synergies: fairly simply, a entirety that is better than the sum of that is parts. Over there are many examples of synergies. A merger typically results in a variety of redundant positions; the combined firm does not most likely need 2 vice-presidents the marketing, 2 chief financial officers, and also so on. Eliminating the redundant positions leads to significant cost save that would certainly not be realized if the two service providers did not merge. Stop say every of the companies was operation factories in ~ 50% of capacity, and by merging, one factory might be closed and sold. That would also be an example of a synergy. Companies bring different strengths and weaknesses into the an unified entity. If the newly-combined agency can take advantage of the marketing capability of the stronger entity and the circulation capabilities that the other (assuming they room stronger), the brand-new company can realize synergies in both of these functions.

Hostile Takeover

What happens, though, if one agency wants come acquire an additional company, however that agency doesn’t want to it is in acquired? The outcome could be a hostile takeover—an plot of assuming manage that’s stood up to by the targeted company’s management and also its plank of directors. Ben Cohen and also Jerry Greenfield discovered themselves in one of these situations: Unilever—a very large Dutch/British company that owns three ice cream brands—wanted to buy Ben & Jerry’s, against the founders’ wishes. Many of the Ben & jerry stockholders sided through Unilever. Lock had little confidence in the capability of Ben Cohen and also Jerry greenfield to continue managing the agency and were frustrated v the this firm social-mission focus. The stockholders liked Unilever’s market to buy your Ben & Jerry’s stock at practically twice its existing market price and also wanted come take your profits. In the end, unilever won; Ben & jerry’s was got by unilater in a enemy takeover.16 despite fears that the company’s social mission would end, it didn’t happen. Though neither Ben Cohen nor Jerry greenfield are associated in the present management the the company, they have actually returned to your social to work roots and are heavily involved in countless social campaigns sponsored through the company.

The initial version of this chapter had H5P content. This contents is not sustained in copy books. You might want to eliminate or change this section.

See more: How Many Inches Is 300 Cm To Inches, 300 Cm To Inches

Chapter Video: company Structures 

Here is a short video providing a straightforward and simple recap that the crucial points of each kind of organization ownership.