A CPU-scheduling algorithm determines an order because that the execution the its booked processes. Given n procedures to be scheduled on one processor, how countless different schedules are possible? offer a formula in regards to n.

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The total number of schedules possible (number of ways to bespeak n distinctive objects in a sequence) is n!
CPU-scheduling decisions might take location under the adhering to four circumstances:When a process switches from the running state come the waiting state (for example, together the an outcome of one I/0 request or one invocation of wait because that the discontinuation of among the boy processes).When a process switches from the running state come the prepared state (for example, as soon as an interrupt occurs).When a process switches from the waiting state come the ready state (for example, at perfect of I/0).When a process terminates.When scheduling takes ar only under circumstances 1 and 4, us say that the scheduling system is non-preemptive or cooperative; otherwise, the is preemptive.
Suppose the the complying with processes arrive because that execution at the time indicated. Each process will operation for the quantity of time listed. In comment the questions, usage nonpreemptive scheduling, and also base every decisions ~ above the information you have at the time the decision have to be made. Procedure Arrival Time to explode Time P1 0.0 8 P2 0.4 4 P3 1.0 1a. What is the mean turnaround time because that these processes with the FCFS scheduling algorithm?
P1 executes and also then we discover P3 is a shorter process than P2.P1 → P3 → P2 = ( 8 + (9 - 1) + (13 - 0.4)) / 3 = 9.53
c. The SJF algorithm is supposed to boost performance, but notice that we chose to run process P1 at time 0 because we did not know that two shorter processes would certainly arrive soon. Compute what the typical turnaround time will certainly be if the CPU is left idle because that the first 1 unit and also then SJF scheduling is used. Mental that processes P1 and also P2 are waiting during this idle time, so your waiting time might increase. This algorithm can be recognized as future-knowledge scheduling.
Idle because that 1, then usage SJF. P3 shortest, P2 next shortest, P1 longest.Idle → P3 → P2 → P1 = ((2 - 1) + ( 6 - 0.4 ) + ( 14 - 0)) / 3 = 6.87
What benefit is there in having different time-quantum sizes at different levels that a multilevel queueing system?
By using different time-quantum sizes, friend can enable processes with shorter quantum and also frequent processes with brief execution time to it is in serviced quickly while procedures with large quantum have the right to be in another queue.
Suppose the a scheduling algorithm (at the level of short-lived CPU scheduling) favors those procedures that have used the the very least processor time in the recent past. Why will certainly this algorithm donate I/O-bound programs and also yet not permanently starve CPU-bound programs?
I/O-bound programs would certainly not require much CPU usage, having short CPU bursts. CPU-bound program require huge CPU bursts. CPU-bound processes do not need to worry around starvation due to the fact that I/O bound programs complete running quickly allowing CPU-bound program to use the CPU often.
Process contention border (PCS) scheduling is performed neighborhood to each process. Mechanism contention border (SCS) scheduling is perform on the operating device with kernel threads. On systems that use many-to-one or many-to-many, PCS and SCS scheduling is different. On systems using one-to-one, PCS and also SCS scheduling is the same.
I/O-bound programs have the property of performing just a small amount the computation before performing I/O. Such programs generally do not usage up their whole CPU quantum. CPU-bound programs, top top the various other hand, use their entire quantum without performing anyblocking I/O operations. Consequently, one could make much better use the the computer"s resouces through giving greater priority come I/O-bound programs and allow them to execute front of the CPU-bound programs.
Discuss just how the complying with pairs that scheduling criteria conflict in certainsettings. A. CPU utilization and solution time
CPU utilization and an answer time: CPU use is enhanced if the overheads connected with paper definition switching is minimized. The context switching overheads might be lowered by performing context switches infrequently. This could, however, result in enhancing the solution time for processes.
Average turnaround time and maximum waiting time: average turnaround time is reduced by executing the shortest jobs first. Such a scheduling plan could, however, starve long-runningtasks and thereby rise their wait time.

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I/O an equipment utilization and also CPU utilization: CPU utilization is maximized by to run long-running CPU-bound work without performing paper definition switches. I/O device utilization is maximized byscheduling I/O-bound work as soon as they end up being ready to run, thereby incurring the overheads of context switches.