Under King Langdarma (Glang-dar-ma), there was a serious repression of Buddhism. This occurred, follow to some sources, between 836 and 842. According to various other sources, it to be from 901 come 907. All monks were either killed or forced to disrobe, except for three: Mar Shakya (dMar Sha-kya), Yo Gejung (g.Yo dGe-‘byung), and Tsang Rabsel (gTsang Rab-gsal). The 3 escaped by passing v western Tibet and also accepting short-term asylum in the Qarakhanid Turk region of Kashgar, in east Turkistan (Xinjiang). They ongoing through the Tibetan cultural regions more to the east, in ~ Dunhuang (Tunhuang) and Gansu (Kansu), which, being much from Lhasa, to be spared the persecution.

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Tsenzhab Serkong Rinpoche

According to part Mongol sources, lock passed v Kyrgyz-ruled Mongolia and also eventually hid top top the eastern shores of Lake Baikal in Siberia. There, they gave initiations and also teachings to Hortsa Mergen, grandson of the Mongol King Borti Chiney, the fifth generation ancestor the Chinggis Khan. According to various other sources, they were offered asylum in the Tangut buddhism Kingdom that Mi-nyag (Mi-nyag), which spanned the region from northern Amdo to Inner Mongolia. Yet other sources identify an ext precisely the area in this region where lock initially resolved as having been part of the Tsongka (Tsong-kha) Kingdom at this time. The cavern monastery Martsang (dMar-gtsang) in northern Amdo was later constructed at the cave where castle supposedly stayed.

Serkong DorjechangAfter numerous years, the three Tibetan monks moved to the southeastern Tibetan province of Kham (Khams, mDo-smad), where they stayed at Dentigshel retreat (Dan-tig-shel-gyi yang-dgon). A local herdsman wished to become a monk. They provided him the novice vows and novice name Gewa-rabsel (dGe-ba rab-gsal), however could not provide him complete monk’s vows because five monks are compelled to give full ordination.


At that time, the monk Lhalung Pelgyi-dorje (Lha-lung dPal-gyi rdo-rje), the assassin that King Langdarma, had actually fled to adjacent Longtang (Klong-thang). He was asked to aid with ordinations, but explained that he can no longer qualify for this role. The promised, however, to aid locate various other monks. He uncovered two Chinese monks, Ki-bang and also Gyi-ban, and also sent lock to finish the count. In this way, v Tsang Rabsel as abbot, the previous herdsman obtained the complete monk’s vows and also the complete ordination name Gongpa-rabsel (dGongs-pa rab-gsal) in the presence of these five. In later times, people included the location Lachen (Bla-chen, an excellent Superior One), before his name.

Some youths indigenous the central Tibetan districts of U (dBus) and Tsang (gTsang) heard the the monks in Kham. Lumey Tsultrim-sherab (Klu-mes Tshul-khrims shes-rab) led a party the ten seeking complete ordination. This was either 53 or 70 years after Langdarma’s persecution. They asked for Tsang Rabsel to it is in the abbot, however he decreased due to old age. They climate asked Gongpa-rabsel, however he explained that he had actually only been a full monk for 5 years and also was not yet qualified. Ten years minimum to be the requirement according come the texts. Nevertheless, Tsang Rabsel provided special permission for him to offer as abbot and the group of ten take it the complete monk’s vows.

Lumey remained on for one year researching the vinaya rule of monastic discipline, while the other nine reverted to central Tibet. Prior to Lumey departed, Gongpa-rabsel had him dye his Bon hat yellow. He told him to wear it together a remembrance of his studies and practice. Lumey changed to main Tibet and also founded number of temples there. The later propagation the the buddhism teachings, and particularly of the monk’s vows, traces from him.

Several century later, monastic self-control had once more declined in Tibet. Tsongkhapa (rJe Tsong-kha-pa Blo-bzang grags-pa) (1357-1419) began a revolutionary that occurred into the new Kadam (bKa’-gdams gsar-pa) or Gelug (dGe-lugs) Tradition. That told his monk disciples come wear yellow hats. He defined that this would certainly be one auspicious sign for them to be able to bring ago pure ethical self-control to the monasteries of Tibet, just as Lumey had done in earlier times. In this way, the Gelug tradition also became known as the Yellow cap Tradition.

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His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama

The red hat worn in the other, earlier Tibetan buddhist traditions follows the tradition of the red hat worn through pandits (learned masters) in ~ the Indian buddhism Monastery that Nalanda.