You are watching: Which of the following could cause a gaseous substance to liquify?

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(a) heavy O2 has a resolved volume and also shape, and also the molecules are packed strict together. (b) liquid O2 conforms come the shape of that is container however has a solved volume; it contains reasonably densely packed molecules. (c) gas O2 fills its container completely—regardless that the container’s dimension or shape—and consists of commonly separated molecules.

The state that a given substance counts strongly on conditions. For example, H2O is commonly found in all three states: solid ice, fluid water, and also water vapor (its gaseous form). Under most conditions, us encounter water together the liquid the is vital for life; us drink it, cook with it, and bathe in it. As soon as the temperature is cold enough to change the liquid to ice, we can ski or skate on it, load it right into a snowball or snow cone, and also even develop dwellings v it. Water vaporThe difference between a gas and a vapor is subtle: the term vapor refers to the gaseous form of a substance that is a liquid or a solid under normal conditions (25°C, 1.0 atm). Nitrogen (N2) and also oxygen (O2) are therefore referred to as gases, but gaseous water in the environment is called water vapor. Is a component of the air we breathe, and also it is developed whenever we heat water for food preparation food or making coffee or tea. Water vapor at temperatures better than 100°C is dubbed steam. Vapor is supplied to drive huge machinery, including turbines that create electricity. The nature of the three states of water room summarized in Table 10.1.1

Table 10.1.1 properties of Water at 1.0 atm

Temperature State density (g/cm3)
≤0°C solid (ice) 0.9167 (at 0.0°C)
0°C–100°C liquid (water) 0.9997 (at 4.0°C)
≥100°C vapor (steam) 0.005476 (at 127°C)

The geometric structure and the physical and invernessgangshow.netical properties of atoms, ions, and molecules usually do not count on your physical state; the separation, personal, instance water molecule in ice, liquid water, and steam, because that example, are all identical. In contrast, the macroscopic properties of a substance count strongly top top its physical state, i beg your pardon is determined by intermolecular forces and conditions such as temperature and pressure.

Figure 10.1.2 reflects the locations in the periodic table of those elements that are typically found in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states. Except for hydrogen, the elements that occur naturally as gases space on the best side of the periodic table. That these, every the noble gases (group 18) are monatomic gases, whereas the other gaseous elements are diatomic molecule (H2, N2, O2, F2, and also Cl2). Oxygen deserve to also type a 2nd allotrope, the extremely reactive triatomic molecule ozone (O3), i m sorry is additionally a gas. In contrast, bromine (as Br2) and also mercury (Hg) room liquids under normal conditions (25°C and also 1.0 atm, typically referred to together “room temperature and pressure”). Gallium (Ga), i beg your pardon melts at just 29.76°C, can be convert to a liquid just by hold a container of it in her hand or keeping it in a non-air-conditioned room top top a hot summer day. The remainder of the facets are all solids under normal conditions.

Figure 10.1.2 facets That happen Naturally together Gases, Liquids, and Solids at 25°C and also 1 atm

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