Search databaseBooksAll DatabasesAssemblyBiocollectionsBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGTRHomoloGeneIdentical Protein Internet CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProteinProtein ClustersProtein Family ModelsPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookgh Bookshelf. A company of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

You are watching: In terms of total dollars spent, the number one and two advertising media are

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths; Lynch BS, Bonnie RJ, editors. Cultivation up Tobacco Free: Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1994.


Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and also Youths; Lynch BS, Bonnie RJ, editors.


Eextremely day, kids and also youths in the USA are exposed to a wide selection of persuasive, very closely crafted commercial messages encouraging the use of tobacco commodities. In 1991 the tobacco industry spent $4.6 billion—more than $12.6 million a day, $8,750 a minute—on declaring and also promoting* cigarette usage, and also over $100 million on advertising and also fostering smokemuch less tobacco assets.1 During the past 15 years, the tobacco market has nearly quadrupled** its marketing expenditures, at a time as soon as tobacco intake has been decreasing. Each day, about 3,500 Americans quit smoking cigarettes and also a second 1,200 tobacco customers and also previous customers die of smoking-associated illness; therefore, maintaining present levels of tobacco usage and also profits calls for that approximately 5,000 brand-new smokers be recruited eextremely day (around 2 million a year).2 Children and also youths constitute the most likely source of brand-new smokers. The 1991 National Househost Surveys on Drug Abusage data expose that the huge majority (89%) of persons ages 30-39 that ever before smoked day-to-day tried their initially cigarette by age 18, and 62% by age 16; over 3 quarters (77%) were cigarette smoking daily prior to age 20.3 At least 3 million American teens smoke routinely and also 3 million civilization who routinely use smokeless tobacco are under age 21.4

Three patterns have actually brought about a growing variety of public wellness specialists to call attention to the function of marketing (advertising and various other promotional approaches) in making tobacco usage attractive to youngsters and also youths and also in encouraging them to use cigarettes and also smokemuch less tobacco. First, boys and also girls are beginning to usage tobacco at ever younger ages. The average age at which boys and also girls initiate cigarette smoking has declined over the previous 4 years by 2.4 years as a whole for whites, 1.3 years as a whole for Afrideserve to Americans, and 5.4 and also 4.6 years for white girls and African-Amerihave the right to girls, respectively.5 The trfinish for girls to begin cigarette smoking at an previously age began in between 1955 and also 1966,6 and the likelihood of becoming a day-to-day smoker at an earlier age enhanced sharply in the early to mid-1970s both for boys and also girls.7 During the exact same period, a second alarming trend in tobacco use has actually been noted: more and more, youths started utilizing smokeless tobacco assets. Half of the nation"s 6 million smokemuch less tobacco users are under the age of 21, and also several national surveys show an increase in prevalence, especially among boys.8 A third trend, which has emerged over the previous 10 years, entails a slowing down of the rate at which cigarette smoking prevalence by youths had been decreasing. Between 1977 and 1981, day-to-day smoking cigarettes among high college seniors dropped a total of about 9% (from 29% to 20%), an average of 2.25 percentage points per year. Yet during the adhering to 11 years, 1981 to 1992 (in the time of which time the tobacco sector even more than doubled its advertising and promovement expenditures) cigarette smoking by high school seniors dropped by only a complete of around 3% (to 17.2%), or only 0.26 percent points per year. Amongst college students, from 1980 to 1992, the decrease in daily cigarette smoking was about the same as for high institution seniors, except that for 1989-1992 there was a slight upward trend in prevalence of cigarette use.9 Notably, during this very same duration (19811991), the per capita cigarette usage fell 28% among adults.10

What factors have added to stable smoking cigarettes prices and to increased prices of smokeless tobacco usage among youngsters and also youths, yet have actually prrange to be much less effective in sustaining tobacco use by adults? Public health advocates indicate that youths have actually a heightened sensitivity to image heralding and proactivity themes at a time in their resides as soon as they are struggling to specify their own identities. Adolescence is identified by three major types of developpsychological challenges: (a) physical maturation, (b) cultural pressures to begin the shift to adult roles and also emotional independence from parents, and also (c) establishment of a systematic self-principle and worths.11 Cigarette advertisements are regularly evocative and also play off these difficulties in addition to being positioned to appeal to particular teams defined by social class and ethnic identity. Early adolescence (ages 11-14) in particular might be a time of increased susceptibility to the appeal of picture advertising and promovements. The feasible results of marketing methods on youths are taken into consideration listed below, complying with a brief review of shifting fads in the appropriation of tobacco marketing dollars.


Tobacco heralding and also promovements are clearly on the climb in the United States. In 1991, expenditures ($4.65 billion) on declaring and proactivity of tobacco products were practically four times the amount ($1.22 billion) invested in 1980 (number 4-1). From 1990 to 1991 alone, expenditures raised 13%.12 The existing annual expenditures amount to $18 for eextremely guy, woguy, and also child in the United States. Promotional tasks take many creates and are the fastest prospering mode of product marketing; they have been uncovered to be effective in leading consumers to act as soon as exposed to advertising.13



Source: Federal Trade Commission. Report to Congress for 1991: Pursuant to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. Washington, D.C.: Federal Trade Commission, 1994.

The tobacco industry"s circulation of marketing expenditures over the past 2 years represents a major shift in marketing trends; in its entirety, the ratio of promotional expenditures to proclaiming expenditures has reversed. Whereas in 1970 advertisements stood for 82%* of full spending on tobacco marketing, they were dvery own to 67% in 1980, 21% in 1990, and 17% in 1991. Although heralding expenditures per se have actually reduced, as a whole spfinishing on marketing (advertising plus promotional activities) has actually boosted. Of the $4.6 billion spent yearly on tobacco marketing, around $700 million is spent on proclaiming. The continuing to be $4 billion is spent on a selection of promotional tasks designed to: (a) place cigarettes and also chewing tobacco in the hands of prospective customers, (b) place cigarettes and also chewing tobacco in significant places in shops and other points of sale wright here they will be psychologically appealing and also physically easily accessible to customers, and (c) produce good will for the tobacco market among the public, community leaders, and also politicians.

Promoting Tobacco Use to Consumers

The goal of marketing is to increase the appeal and acceptcapacity of a product and to make the product accessible to the potential consumer. Tobacco marketing tactics (a) develop attitudinal predispositions that lead noncustomers to experiment via tobacco commodities and also analyze their endure as positive and rewarding, (b) foster the perception that consumption of tobacco products in basic and also in particular conmessages (places, times) is normative, (c) minimize worry around the potential risks associated through tobacco usage, propagating the perception that tright here are ""safe" smoking options, and (d) reassure smokers and users of smokemuch less tobacco that feasible threats are worth the benefits received from tobacco use. Marketing tactics promote both brand-specific and accumulation tobacco usage. The impression that tobacco usage is preferable and also normative is conveyed via picture declaring and promovements that make tobacco commodities very visible in public spaces—if not by their existence, then by proxy in the creates of brand also trademarks, insignia, logos, and items linked via preestablished brand imeras (for example, adventure scenarios). The major creates of marketing are highlighted below.


Retail value-added proactivities and specialty items. Dramatically on the climb are retail value-included promovements such as multiple packs (buy one, gain one free), cents-off coupons, and a free essential chain or lighter blister-packed to a cigarette pack. Value-included proactivities and also coupons comprised the largest marketing expenditure (40% of full marketing expenditures) by the tobacco market in 1991. Promotional items have one-of-a-kind appeal to youths. Since youths have less disposable earnings and also are more price-sensitive than adults, promovements such as discount buy-one-get-one-free schemes may be particularly attrenergetic to them. Coupons are quickly available to youths through direct-mail promovements. (See number 4-2 for expenditure data for this area.) Attrenergetic specialty items—such as T-shirts, caps, calendars, and sporting goods—are distributed by the tobacco sector through the mail and at promotional occasions. These items, which sport a logo or brand also name, become walking advertisements qualified of penetrating areas of a child"s people that can be offboundaries to other forms of heralding. The ubiquity of such speciality items conveys the impression that tobacco usage is the norm. Spending for specialty items accounted for 4% of expenditures in 1991. A 1992 Gallup survey discovered that fifty percent of all adolescent smokers and also one-quarter of adolescent nonsmokers owned at least one promotional item from a tobacco company.14 Comparable data were reported in a survey of nearly 8,000 ninth graders in Erie County, New York: 65% of regular smokers, 48% of occasional smokers, and also 28% of nonsmokers reported owning clothing via a cigarette brand also logo.15 Although the majority of youths seem to uncover logo design clothing appealing, some high institution students in emphasis teams (carried out under the auflavors of the Committee) discovered them "tacky" and would certainly not consider wearing them. Especially, yet, these very same teenagers save Marlboro Miles and Camel Cash coupons in order to gain other forms of items. In a 1993 survey of 1,047 respondents eras 12-17, ownership of an average of 3.2 tobacco promotional items was reported by 10.6% of the sample. While 68.2% of current smokers reported participating in promotional campaigns, 28.4% of nonsmoking teens were additionally active participants. These promotional items lug no warning labels and carry out cost-free advertising.16

"My brother gets the Camel Cash. He"s acquired stacks and stacks of them to obtain hats or whatever before. "

—adolescent in emphasis group


Promotional allowances constitute the second largest tobacco marketing expenditure—25% of all marketing-connected expenditures. Thturbulent this form of proactivity, tobacco providers pay retailers for shelf space, engage in cooperative heralding through retailers, and also offer trade promovements to wholesalers, and so on Retailers are rewarded for stocking a wide variety of brands, also brands via low industry demand also. For example, a convenience save owner who sells 2,000 packs per week might be encouraged to stock over 180 different brand pacmajesties (some having actually only 0.1% market share) in order to be eligible to receive catalyst payments, which can be as high as $8,000 per year for a moderate-size retailer.17

As an outcome of trade incentives, cigarettes and also various other tobacco commodities are displayed prominently where adults as well as youths of all eras have the right to watch them. Self-company display screens are a vital source of tobacco products for minors.18 Cigarettes are typically shown near checkout counters, and flavored chewing tobacco has actually been reported to be shown near candy racks in convenience shops. A survey in California of stores close to high colleges found chewing tobacco beside candy and snacks in 42% of the stores.19 In addition to recording the eye of a potential buyer that may not consciously be in the market for a tobacco product, the placing of tobacco through other products conveys subtle associational meanings. For example, when inserted close to liquor, as they often are, cigarettes involved be associated via adult standing and through assets advocated to shift one"s consciousness away from the stress and anxiety, strains, anxieties, and also boredom of regimen visibility, as a means of offering some temporary release and also relief.


Point-of-sale advertising showinstances specific brands of cigarettes in shops to stimulate impulse purchases. Due to the fact that the 1971 ban on broadactors advertising, tobacco service providers have actually made marketing through distribution a major function of their sales pressures, which numbered more than 9,000 market wide in the beforehand 1980s.20 This marketing method places the tobacco assets in convenient, visible racks, normally self-service, and also in point-of-purchase displays. Point-of-sale promovements tend to involve the retailer, and also the consumer, in a brand product. Support of brands with point-of-sale heralding helps to bolster the legitimacy of a brand also in the eyes of retailers who make stocking decisions.21 Point-of-sale products are coordinated via nationwide declaring projects to tie retailers in via the image-building for the product. In this sense, point-of-sale advertising both influences product circulation and directly induces intake.22 Point-of-sale heralding in retail facilities has actually been enhancing and in 1991 represented 7.4% of proclaiming and also promotional expenditures.


Magazine and newspaper advertising accounted for around 7% of marketing expenditures in 1991, once expenditures on newspaper ads reached an all-time low of 1.0%, a big drop given that the 1980 high of 24.5%. Magazine ads were down to 6% of marketing dollars in 1991, from 21.4% in 1980. Nonetheless, expenditures on tobacco heralding in the print media do continue to be considerable and the decreases are not emerging at the same price throughout all market segments; for example, while the number of ads per magazine concern has actually decreased in men"s and also women"s magazines, it has continued to be reasonably secure in those magazines having actually substantial African-American and youth readerships.23 In enhancement, advertisements are regularly unified via interactive promotional items that appeal to children and youths. For instance, many kind of magazine advertisements function giveaway, non-cigarette utility items (calendars, lighters, T-shirts, and "action products") linked with "cash coupon" catalogue offers. Magazines often increate potential customers to be on the lookout for added indevelopment around these provides at point-of-sale locations.

"They advertise a lot. Eextremely magazine I have—there"s an ad for Camels, Marlboros, Newports."

—high institution girl in focus group


The tobacco industry was the number one spender for outdoor declaring in 1989,24 of the around 3 million billboards in the USA, 30% were allocated to tobacco and alcohol products.25 Advertising with the use of outdoor billboards and transit system signs accounted for 9.6% of all tobacco marketing expenditures in 1991. The sector has actually saturated African-American communities through cigarette billboards. Studies disclose that the intensity of cigarette billboard declaring is 2.6 times greater in African-American than in white neighborhoods in Columbia, South Carolina,26 and 3.8 times greater in Baltieven more.27 In spite of intended industry criteria to the contrary, billboards declaring tobacco commodities can be discovered beside residences, schools, churches, parks, playgrounds, wellness centers, stadiums, shopping centers, and also alengthy rural and city streets. More long-term than magazine declaring, and also watched over and also over aget by youths, billboard ads disclose youngsters repetitively to pro-tobacco messeras and also give the erroneous impression that smoking is pervasive and normative.


Sponsorship of sporting events and also public entertainment associates tobacco through (a) all-American cultural events, such as music concerts and also art exhibits, where fundamental social worths are celebrated, and also (b) high-risk sporting occasions, such as rodeos and car racing, wbelow dangers are socially approved and also taken by individuals that brave the odds. The tobacco sector sponsors opera and ballet performances, and concerts of rock, rap, country and western, blues, jazz, and also timeless music, making tobacco commodities highly visible to diverse populations and also strengthening the association between cigarettes, artistic expression, entertainment, glamour, and also individuality.

Expenditures on the promotion of sporting activities and also sporting events are prospering. The 1994 surgeon general"s report has called distinct attention to sponsorship of sporting occasions associated through a company"s brand also name and/or logo, noting that this constitutes among the a lot of efficient implies of concealed proclaiming. Even during occasions that are not sponsored by the tobacco market, tobacco commodities are permanently displayed: tobacco billboards are the dominant form of advertisement in many type of major expert stadiums. Youths attend such sporting occasions, and watch them on television; many kind of look for to emulate sports superstars, such as baseround players, who visibly chew and also spit tobacco throughout these sporting activities events, thereby actually demonstrating the usage of the commodities on the billboards. Each 3-second expocertain of a billboard in a ballpark has actually a marketing influence comparable to a 10-second TV commercial.28 A extensively cited example of just how much product expocertain is realized via surprise declaring in the time of sporting occasions is the 1989 Marlboro Grand Prix: when the event was televised, the Marlboro logo might be seen for 46 of the 94 complete minutes of this sport event"s broadactors time.29 In the 1987 NASCAR Stock Race Circuit the Winston logo appeared for a full of 6 hrs and also 22 minutes—nonpaid hidden declaring on the air valued at $7.5 million.30 In 1992, 354 motorsports broadcasts were quantitatively measured for estimates of product expocertain value. The programs had actually a total viewing audience of 915 million, 7% of whom were kids and also teenagers, and an overall tobacco product expocertain value of $68 million ($41 million for Winston, $12 million for Marlboro, $7 million for Skoal, $4 million for Camel, and also $4 million for others).31 Studies have actually uncovered that youths accurately associate sporting occasions via tobacco brands.32


Distribution of totally free samples of cigarettes in public areas, for "adults only," was at its highest percentage (about 7%) of complete marketing dollars in the beforehand 1970s, and also has remained about 2% because the late 1980s. Monitoring of who is provided free samples has been bad, and tobacco service providers who contract-out sample distribution have actually taken no obligation for cited violations in which minors have been given samples.


See more: 1/4 Cup Fresh Cilantro To Dried Herb Measurements, Bulk Dried Cilantro

Expenditures for direct-mail proactivities are on the rise; $65 million was spent in 1991, a boost of 22% over 1990. All five significant cigarette suppliers actively compile mailing lists of customers, mainly from coupons, which ask for name, deal with, usual brand, etc; from promovement redemptions; from the rerotate of "smoker surveys" in magazines; and also from the rerotate of more basic consumer indevelopment questionnaires. The creates occasionally ask thorough concerns about brand also use and also around demographic characteristics. Brvery own & Williamchild, Lorrilard, and also American Brands use their lists occasionally to sfinish out coupons. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company type of (RJR), Philip Morris Tobacco Company, and also USA Tobacco Company kind of (UST) have made more extensive use of their mailing lists. UST sends its listees a slick quarterly magazine, Heartland also, which puts Skoal and Copenhagen in a pleasant context and also consists of assorted uses. RJR and also Philip Morris mount constant mailings cultivating a selection of brands, depending on the qualities of the persons on the lists. RJR promotes Camel and discount brands, and periodically sends out out coupons great for any top-of-the-line RJR cigarette product. Philip Morris has actually unique mail programs for Marlboro, Virginia Slims, Merit, and also Benchild & Hedges. Individuals on the Camel lists have got at leastern six mailings in the previous year acomponent from any coupon redemptions.