Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton theory of, proton theory of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidionic acidproton donorproton acceptorconjugate acid-base pair...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, likewise called proton concept of acids and bases, a theory, introduced independently in 1923 by the Danish chemist john Nicolaus Brønsted and also the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any type of compound that have the right to transfer a proton to any kind of other link is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear bit with a unit positive electric charge; that is stood for by the symbol H+ since it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of three theories of acids and also bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry system a substance can duty as an acid only in the visibility of a base; similarly, a substance can role as a base only in the existence of one acid. Furthermore, when an acidic substance loser a proton, it develops a base, dubbed the conjugate basic of an acid, and also when a an easy substance gains a proton, it forms an acid called the conjugate mountain of a base. Thus, the reaction in between an acidic substance, such together hydrochloric acid, and a an easy substance, such together ammonia, might be stood for by the equation:

In bespeak to solve the various challenges in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion interpretations of acids and also bases, a new, much more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate come the basic ammonia, and also the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate come hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry concept enlarges the variety of compounds thought about to be acids and bases to incorporate not just the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and also the alkali metal hydroxides) however also specific atoms and also molecules with confident and an unfavorable electrical fees (cations and anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated steel cations are thought about acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and also halogen ion are considered bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia invernessgangshow.netThis post was most recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, senior Editor.

See more: Number Of Valence Electrons In Sodium (Na), How Many Valence Electrons Does Sodium Have


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