A sorus is a collective kind of sporangia the encloses spores, which later assist in their growth and development. Sorus is acquired from the Greek word "sporos" definition "pile".


Sorus is a complex structure the is developed by the mix of sporangia and present in fungus and ferns. The hatchet is literal terms way stack or heap the sporangia. The sorum is spanned by an outside layer when existing in fungus; however, it creates a depression in thallus when connected with red algae. A solitary sori is dubbed sorus and is located on the underside of fern leaf and forms a mass typically of yellow or brown. Sori are produced on the surface of fertile fronds, a type of sheet fern. In part fern species, sori origin from a tissue-like structure recognized as indusium. After ~ spore maturation, a pressure is produced on indusium, which help the relax of spores. Sori are useful in species detection of fern and are usually present in rows that are either parallel or oblique.

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The fern human body is split into three significant parts and also include-


Frond, and also



Fern body are current in various shapes and also size, and a huge proportion has actually been discovered in brand-new Zealand. A leaf fern is additionally termed Fronds and can be found in 2 forms and also include, bipinnate and tripinnate. Bipinnate and tripinnate are typically called silver fern and also chicken fern, respectively. Pinnate is a term given to the fern leaf as soon as divided. Sori is positioned ~ above the leaf of the pinna or except pinna margin. A sporangium is a framework filled v spores and also helps in the to know of fern species.

Spores space the cells that are developed by fern in extreme conditions. The spores room enclosed in sporangia, and also each fern will produce around 60 spores in a solitary sporangium. They space usually the existing on the underside the the leaf and in some cases on the upper side. Spores can provide rise come a new fern body after finding wet soil. The sporangia space fertile, when situated underside of the leaf and helps throughout reproduction during unfavorable conditions. A swarm of sporangia is well-known as sorus and also present of various size and also shape. They can be round, elongated, or oval, present on the pinna margins. The structure of sorus helps in the identification of fern species, and additionally participates in the identification of different fern genera.

Role the Sorus in Reproduction

Fern pipeline containing spores and sorus combine and participate in diploid generations, also called the sporophyte. The diploid sporophyte gives rise to haploid spores with meiosis. The process is pertained to sperm and egg manufacturing in animals and plants. The next step involves the formation of prothallus (gametophyte) by mitosis.

Each prothallus consists of haploid chromosomes and also produces gametes. The sporophyte will consist of frond and rhizome if gametophyte is written of leaflets. Gametophyte will offer rise to sperm in ~ antheridium and also eggs are developed within the archegonium. Throughout the rainy season, sperms will move towards eggs, and fertilization occurs. The procedure will type a zygote i beg your pardon is a combination of DNA indigenous both the sperm and also egg. The neck permits the sperm to move towards the egg by a neck-like structure. The egg will certainly wait for the sperm to affix to it and also fertilize it.

The zygote will kind diploid sporophyte, and the process starts again. The spores will certainly contain sporangia and also are situated underside of the matured leaflet. Spores will participate in reproduction and also get exit from the sporangium.

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Evolutionary development

The spare part in the sori or sporangia have actually been found because primitive times. The sori are a part of the reproductive organ. The early phase differentiation of the leaflet will add to reproductive and vegetative reproduction as well. Assorted studies are affiliated that explain the role of sori in reproduction. Hagemann's hypothesis described that apart from sporangia, other vital structures are affiliated in reproduction and include receptacle. Sporangia and also receptacle both are located on the leaf margins and aid in the advance of different varieties of sori. The basipetal marginal sorus is developed by combining rod-shaped receptacle. The sori is a complex structure and typically discovered on fern leaflet margin or away from it and also is well described in Pteridium species. The research studies involve the Pteridium species, i beg your pardon proves the evolutionary existence of sori ~ above fern sheet margins.

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