According come the Centers for an illness Control and Prevention (CDC), an approximated 48 million human being get sick from foodborne-related diseases each year, with 128,000 of lock needinghospitalization. Keeping food in ~ a suitable temperature is among the most important things a food handler can do to stop bacteria that reason foodborne condition from farming rapidly. Leaving particular foods the end for a lengthy time in specific temperatures creates problems for bacteria come grow, sometimes to attention levels. Limiting just how long foodstuffs spend in growth-promoting temperature minimizes the hazard of someone getting sick. This unit will cover which foods items are most at hazard for harboring pathogens, exactly how to control time and also temperature to minimization bacterial overgrowth, and the proper method to take it the temperature of foods items throughout the food preparation process.

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Objectives:
Define TCS food and name two examples of TCS foods.Describe the temperature “danger zone” and how exposure time can create an optimal atmosphere for bacteria come grow.Identify four instances when managing time and temperature is crucial in the food ready process.List three means to appropriately thaw frozen foods.Demonstrate the proper method to take it temperatures the various types of food.

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TCS Food

All food can potentially carry harmful bacteria, however some foods are especially conducive to promoting bacterial growth. Number of factors affect the rate at which bacteria prosper in food, however time and temperature are two that the most easily-controlled factors in a food organization kitchen. Food that calls for time and also temperature control for safety and security is described as TCS food. TCS food has several attributes that make it best for bacter growth, such as moisture, protein, and also a neutral or slightly acidic pH.

TCS food deserve to be whole food, or it can be food that has currently been prepared, choose a casserole. TCS food deserve to be from pet or plant sources. Foodstuffs that are thought about TCS include:

Milk and other dairy productsMeat (beef, pork, lamb) or poultry (chicken, turkey)Fish and shellfishEggsBaked potatoesPlant-based foodstuffs that have been heat-treated (cooked rice, beans, or vegetables)Soy foods (tofu, textured soy protein/meat alternatives)Sliced or reduced fruits or vegetable (e.g. Cantaloupe or melons, irpari greens, tomatoes, etc.)Bean sprouts and sprout seedsUntreated garlic-and-oil mixtures
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Print the end the mini-poster below illustrating TCS foods and hang that in your kitchen facility, if space permits, or keep the information in a source Binder or similiar location within your facility.

Factors that influence Bacterial Growth

There are six determinants that affect bacterial growth on food. These are food, acidity, time, temperature, oxygen, and also moisture. How acidic a food is, as measured through pH, can additionally influence how quickly bacteria deserve to grow. Bacteria often tend to thrive in foodstuffs with a pH in between 4.6 and 9.0. Short pH foods—those the are more acidic—include things favor pickled foods, jams or jellies, honey, and fruits. High pH foods—those that perform not have much acidity—include meats, milk, and vegetables. Many bacteria that cause foodborne condition grow well in conditions that do not have much oxygen, which is why that is essential to manage other factors that encourage bacterial development in food. Bacteria need moisture come grow, and the quantity of moisture in a food is measure up by water activity. The higher the humidity in a food, the much better the conditions for bacter growth. The water activity scale varieties from 0 to 1.0, with distilled water gift 1.0. Most foods items have a water task of at the very least 0.95, definition that bacteria have sufficient moisture to grow.

A food handler cannot regulate a food’s acidity, oxygen, or moisture; this properties are natural to the food itself. However, in food service, the continuing to be two factors, time and temperature, have the right to be controlled. Time and also temperature are very closely related. Bacterial expansion in ideal problems happen rapidly: the quantity of bacteria can double every 15 to 20 minutes. This is specifically true when the temperature that food drops in the temperature peril zone. The temperature hazard zone arrays from 41 F come 135 F (5 C come 74 C). The longer a food stays in this temperature range, the higher the danger for bacteria to grow rapidly in a TCS food. That is encourage to limit the length of time a TCS food is in the temperature hazard zone to no much more than 4 hours.

Controlling Time & Temperature native Receiving with Preparation

Receiving Food

It is necessary to make sure you check the temperature that TCS food throughout the receiving process. This will help you gauge whether food was exposed come the temperature hazard zone during transit. Record each food’s temperature top top a designated temperature log. Refrigerated TCS foods should come at 41 F (5 C) or colder. Frozen TCS food have to arrive at 0 F (-18 C) or colder. Hot TCS food must be received at 135 F (57 C) or higher; similar to cold or frozen TCS food, be sure to file the temperature of warm TCS food ~ above receipt utilizing a designated temperature log. Frozen TCS food through ice crystals or frozen liquid, fluids, or water stains have to not it is in accepted. Additionally, any food that has passed the use-by or expiration date, has an turn off odor, abnormal color, or mold, or any meat, fish or poultry that is slimy, sticky, or dry must be rejected.

Storing Food

Maintaining ideal temperature throughout storage the TCS food is very important. Temperatures must be checked and also recorded regularly. Food warehouse time need to be documented. This is achieved through writing down the day a food to be put right into storage and when it need to be used directly on the food itself. Labels are a great way to execute this. Here are some safety tips for safely save TCS food:

Refrigerated TCS food have to be stored at 41 F (5 C) or cooler so that the inner temperature of the food maintains this temperature.Keep frozen food frozen; execute not enable it to thaw.Do not overcrowd freezers or refrigerators; this can cause the temperature within the equipment to end up being warmer and also expose the food to dangerous temperatures.Minimize how frequently you have to open refrigerator and also freezer doors.Label TCS food as soon as it goes into storage. The brand should incorporate the surname of the food, the day it went into storage, and the date it have to be supplied by. Ready-to-eat TCS food ready on-site in your facility must be used within seven days if held at 41 F (5 C) or lower.Be sure to turn food during storage so the the food with the earliest use-by day is in prior of foodstuffs with later dates. (As questioned in great Four, this is called FIFO rotation, or first in, an initial out.)

The proper temperatures for kitchen tools are together follows:

Refrigerators:40F (4 C) or colderFreezers:0 F (-18 C) or colderDry storage:50 F come 70 F (10 C come 21 C), with family member humidity the 50 to 60 percent

Record the temperature of her facility’s walk-in refrigerators and freezers on one approvedtemperature log. Her program may use a specific form, or you deserve to use the temperature logtemplate below.

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Thawing Food

There are four ways to effectively thaw frozen food. Which technique you use counts on the form of food friend thaw. The is crucial to thaw food appropriately to minimize how much time the food is in the temperature peril zone to inhibit bacterial growth.