This write-up discusses how you can use harvesting as a management tool to improve your woodlands while also safeguarding against poor harvesting practices.

You are watching: The main purpose of a forester is to identify land for timber harvesting.


Are you among Pennsylvania"s many thousands of backwoods owners? have actually you ever thought about managing your forest resources? If so, sooner or later you may want to market timber from your land. Harvesting wood can carry you income; it can likewise have a lasting, positive impact on your forest.

We have actually written this bulletin for private woodland landowners who don"t intend to use their forestland mainly for timber production, yet who may be considering a hardwood sale now or in the future. The bulletin is not about conducting a hardwood sale (see Pennsylvania Woodlands 5: marketing products from her Woodlands), but around the services of harvesting timber and its prestige in backwoods stewardship.

We identify poor harvesting techniques that can degrade her forestland. We also describe forestry methods that deserve to improve her forest"s value and your enjoyment that it. Transparent the bulletin we tension the prominence of permanent planning.

Your decision to harvest trees from a tract of forestland may be the most consequential you will certainly make during the forest"s life. The outcomes will have a substantial effect ~ above you, your forestland, and the environment.

A Diverse neighborhood of Plants and also Animals

Since early american settlement, Pennsylvania"s forests have supplied the republic with the raw materials it required to grow and develop. Our resilient forests are renewable resources that have endured past abuses. Nonetheless, woodlands are living neighborhoods of plants and animals, and they will not remain productive and healthy if continuous mistreated. Woodland stewardship establish that proper harvesting techniques can sustain the vigor, productivity, and also diversity of these communities.

While timber manufacturing is not a priority for most of Pennsylvania"s 500,000 private "nonindustrial" woodland landowners, many people sell lumber at some point during their ownership. Unfortunately, fewer 보다 20 percent of all timber harvests in Pennsylvania involve the services of a forester or natural source professional. As a result: (1) landowners regularly lose income since they offer timber without adequate information, and (2) countless acres the forestland absence ongoing management.

The woodland is a complicated natural system. To usage it rationally needs a large understanding the the biological processes involved as well as an appreciation for the economic, social, and an individual pressures that influence woodlot management decisions. By practicing sound forest management, you have the right to reap good benefits from your forests: clean water, woodland products, wildlife, aesthetic enjoyment, and also a sense of stewardship.

Timber Harvesting: device of plenty of Uses

For there is hope of a tree, if that be cut down, the it will certainly sprout again and also that the soft branch over there of will not cease.

--Job 14:7

While a decision come harvest may be motivated more by finances than a sense of forest stewardship, no inherent problem exists in between realizing income from your woodlot and also practicing forest stewardship. Indeed, the earnings you obtain from selling timber will frequently pay because that a number of other woodland management activities. Timber harvesting is just one of numerous management practices--not an end in itself, but component of one integrated, long-term management plan.

A forest is much more than a arsenal of trees. The is a dynamic ecosystem, characterized by the interaction of living organisms v their environment. To regulate a forest, we require to understand a tiny about forest ecology, the study of life in the forest--how the forest grows and also how it interacts with its surroundings.

Undisturbed by person activity, a woodland changes; favor all living solution it cannot stay static. Herbal disturbances such as windstorms, fire, insects, and also diseases interrupt herbal succession and influence forest structure and composition. Timber harvesting is an fabricated disturbance that likewise affects the ecosystem.

Like any kind of other science, forestry has a technological jargon. The art and also science that tending a stand of trees based on ecological principles is referred to as silviculture. Silviculture"s goal is to develop forests while managing stand structure.

Foresters influence development of individual trees and also the in its entirety stand through manipulating stand structure.

They usage their expertise of the means a forest creates to use silvicultural treatments, such as harvesting or thinning, at various stages in a forest"s life. These treatments mimic transforms that take place naturally.

For example, clearcutting huge areas may mimic the result of a wildfire by producing a huge opening and permitting trees whose seeds are brought easily by the wind and/or sun-loving trees choose aspen or pin-cherry to colonize the site. ~ above the other hand, harvest by picking individual trees mimics the natural process whereby tiny openings are produced when individual trees die. This process maintains a constant forest cover and also may donate shade-tolerant species, like sugar maple or beech, the persist in the shaded understory.

Silvicultural treatments choose thinning space not used simply for lumber management. Castle can likewise be exercised to achieve a wide selection of administration objectives. Whether you harvest a huge area because that forest products or reduced a few cords that firewood to heat your home, you affect wildlife and its habitat. Appropriate planning during a lumber harvest can advantage wildlife.

Silvicultural treatments to control light and moisture because that timber manufacturing can also be used to manipulate vegetation and also create openings, boost edge (the boundary between open land and also woodland), and also improve browse for wildlife. As a landowner, you must be conscious that any kind of decision to harvest, even if it is a partial cut or a clearcut, have the right to incorporate special considerations because that wildlife into the operation. Although wood harvesting is an important tool because that achieving numerous objectives, it may be not compatible with certain goals, such together protecting natural areas or keeping habitats for rare or intimidated species.

Conducting a commercial hardwood harvest may be one means to develop a network of woods roads that will carry out long-term accessibility to your woodlot while conference other woodland management objectives. Sometimes revenue from the timber sale might be diminished in exchange for small or no out-of-pocket roadbuilding expenses. Roads can provide accessibility for silvicultural treatments, as well as trails because that hiking, horseback riding, or cross-country skiing. The very same roads can serve as nature trails or as travel lanes for observing songbirds and also other wildlife. Whereby the fire danger is high, roads act together firebreaks and also provide access for fire-fighting equipment.

In what other means is lumber harvesting crucial tool because that you, the woodland steward? harvest to rescue dead or dying trees can reduce fire risk and contain outbreaks of insects and also disease. Removed high-risk or infected trees deserve to maintain forest health and also vigor, thereby reducing the stand"s susceptibility come outbreaks. Selected dead trees or snags might be left together den trees because that cavity-nesting types or together perches because that raptors and also other birds. (Please remember, wood harvesting poses a danger of injury to the logging crew. Dead trees compound the risk. Make sure your requirements are in concert through safe logging practices.)

Any hardwood harvest disturbs the natural ecosystem. However proven cost-effective methods are known to diminish the an adverse impacts during and immediately after logging. Because that example, reseeding the log landing (where logs are ready for hauling) after harvesting is a simple, reasonably inexpensive way to boost the illustration of the harvested website while benefiting wildlife and reducing erosion.

Creating little openings in dense forest can provide habitat for different wildlife varieties and may create a vista because that you and also your household to enjoy. In part cases, thinning a stand have the right to improve recreational accessibility as well as stand appearance.

Before conducting a timber harvest, discuss your pertains to with her forester and also incorporate into your stewardship plan those practices that finest meet her objectives. For an ext information on protecting the visual value of your woodlot, check out A overview to Logging Aesthetics: handy Tips because that Loggers, Foresters, and also Landowners.

Selected Timber management Terminology

Clearcut--a regeneration an approach that clears all the trees, nevertheless of size, on an area in one operation. Clear-cutting is most frequently used with types like aspen or black color cherry, i m sorry require complete sunlight come reproduce and also grow well, or come create particular habitat for particular wildlife species. Clearcutting to produce an even-aged forest stand.Diameter-limit cut--a timber harvesting therapy in which every trees end a stated diameter might be cut. Diameter-limit cuts often an outcome in high- grading.Even-aged stand--a group of trees that perform not different in age by much more than 10 to 20 years or through 20 percent the the rotation age.High-grading--a form of timber harvesting in which larger trees that commercially valuable species are gotten rid of with small regard for the quality, quantity, or distribution of trees and regeneration left top top the site.Intermediate treatment--(improvement cut) a collective term applied to forest cutting therapies in even-aged stands in between regeneration har- vests; consists of thinnings and TSI.Regeneration--the replacement of one forest stand by an additional as a result of herbal seeding, sprouting, planting, or various other methods; also young trees the will construct into the future forest.Regeneration method--a timber harvest designed to promote and enhance natural establishment of trees. Even-aged stands space perpetuated through three renewal methods: seed tree, shelterwood, and also clearcutting. Uneven-aged stands space perpetuated by selecting individual or little groups the trees for removal (e.g., the an option system).Release--removal of overtopping tree to allow understory or overtopped tree to thrive in solution to enhanced light.Residual stand--trees continuing to be following any type of cutting operation.Salvage cut--the removed of dead, damaged, or diseased trees v the will of recovering best value prior to deterioration.Sawlog--a log large enough to yield lumber. Usually the small end that a sawlog have to be at least 6 to 8 inches in diameter for softwoods and 10 come 12 inches for hardwoods.Seed tree method--a regeneration method where mature trees space left standing in a harvest area to provide seed for rebirth of the cut-over site.Selection method--a regeneration an approach designed come create and perpetuate an uneven-aged forest. Trees might be eliminated singly or in small groups. A well-designed selection cut gets rid of trees of lesser quality and trees in every diameter classes together with merchantable and also mature high-quality sawlog trees. Should be differentiated from "select" or "selective" cuts, which often equate come high-grading.Silviculture--the art, science, and practice that establishing, tending, and reproducing forest stands.Silvicultural treatment--altering the existing composition and structure of a was standing to achieve a given management objective, such as thinning a timber stand.Site--the mix of biotic, climatic, topographic, and soil problems of one area; the environment at a location.Site quality--the inherent abundant capacity that a particular location (site) in the forest influenced by available growth determinants (light, heat, water, nutrients, anchorage); frequently expressed as tree height at a basic age.Stand--a grouping of vegetation saturated uniform in species composition, age, and also condition come be differentiated from neighboring vegetation species and controlled as a single unit.Stand structure--the vertical and also horizontal plan of plant communities in a stand; usually describes the family member position, size, and age the trees and other plants.Stumpage--the commercial value of standing trees.Succession--the natural series of replace instead replace of one plant neighborhood (and the linked fauna) by an additional over time and also in the lack of disturbance.Sustained yield--historically, a lumber management concept in which the volume the wood eliminated is same to expansion within the full forest. The concept is applicable to non-timber forest values together well.Thinning--removal of trees to encourage development of other selected individual trees. Might be advertisement or pre-commercial.Timber stand innovation (TSI)--a mix of intermediate therapies designed to boost growth and also composition of the forest.Understory--the smaller sized vegetation (shrubs, seedlings, saplings, little trees) within a forest stand, occupying the vertical zone in between the over- story and the herbaceous plants of the woodland floor.Uneven-aged stand--a group of tree of a range of ages and sizes farming together on a site.

Case Study: Harvesting wood to improve Wildlife Habitat

Jean and Marshall Brooks live in the Philadelphia suburbs but own 83 acres of forest in Sullivan County. When the Brookses aren"t protest to lumber harvesting, castle don"t check out their woodland primarily as a source of timber. Much more than something else, they gain the wildlife castle see when they come increase on summer weekends.

Marshall well-known that he had actually some good timber, yet he was more interested in opened the area around the house and also clearing the underbrush because that a much better view of the woods. ~ above advice indigenous a neighbor, the contacted a forester to help plan a lumber sale. Rather of a big partial cut, your forester argued a collection of tiny patch cuts. Hollow den trees and nut-bearing trees like oak were left for black bears and small mammals. Grapevines were left follow me the jagged sheet of the cut, and log-loading areas were seeded to grasses and also legumes to entice turkeys, ruffed grouse, fox, deer, and rabbits.

These were few of the approaches used, and also the Brookses noticed a rise in the number and species of pets they saw shortly after the cutting. The money indigenous the timber sale covered part of their taxes and paid because that the trees and also shrubs they planted for wildlife. The Brookses are currently considering further treatments to encourage wildlife.

For an ext information on combine wildlife considerations into your logging operation, refer to the Pennsylvania game Commission publication lumber Sales and also Wildlife or the pen State booklet Woodlands and also Wildlife. For info on obtaining both publications, contact your county office of pen State, video game Commission, or office of Forestry.

Diameter-based Cutting: A issue of Concern

As Pennsylvania"s hardwood forests method maturity, the farming demand for high-quality hardwoods has driven stumpage--the commercial worth of stand timber--to an all-time high. Higher timber prices have prompted countless landowners, even those who formerly had small or no attention in marketing timber, to think about a logging operation.

Unfortunately, numerous landowners underestimate the complexities of timber harvesting and often space unprepared because that a long-term commitment to forest management. Come maximize profits, landowners frequently sidestep the help of a expert forester and also sell their "biggest and best" trees quite than investing in sound woodland management. The sad result is often a lower price for the timber and a palliation in your forestland"s value.

What is Diameter-based Cutting?

Diameter-based cutting, or some variation the it, is the most widely supplied harvest an approach in Pennsylvania. Diameter-based harvest treatments deserve to incorporate good forestry, yet they rarely do. In fact, these practices have the right to degrade the forest and subsequently mitigate its future value for timber and also other benefits. Over there is worry that, due to the fact that of that prevalence, diameter-based cutting might be contributing come a broad-scale decline in forest source quality.

In a strict diameter-based cutting, dubbed diameter limit, tree to be harvested room selected specifically on the communication of diameter in ~ stump or breast height--without regard for various other values. All merchantable or advertisement trees over the limit room cut, while those below the limit space left together the staying or residual stand. Without any kind of other controls, a diameter-based harvest may eliminate trees through superior genetic potential and disregard nontimber values, such together seed resource or mast (tree-borne nuts and also berries) for wildlife.

Many woodland landowners inadvertently usage a diameter-based harvest due to the fact that they think selective logging or some type of partial cut is the least disruptive method to harvest timber. In reality, together "selective" cutting often does far more harm 보다 a correctly prescribed and also implemented clearcut.

Most the Pennsylvania"s present forests space the same period or even-aged, result from substantial turn-of-the-century logging (see figure 1). Yet even in a fairly uniform was standing (composed of only a few species) over there is some variation in tree diameter size. Some trees build larger crowns and increase in diameter an ext quickly. Others room crowded or overtopped by leading trees; your crowns space smaller and their diameter development slower.

number 1. Stand advancement under even-aged management.

The bell curve in figure 2 illustrates the distribution of tree by diameter that would be uncovered in an even-aged stand composed of only one species. Note that sports in diameter amongst individual trees in a homogenous even-aged was standing are due to variations in sunlight, water, and growing an are available to every individual, and to hereditary differences amongst individuals.

figure 2. Normal distribution common of a "single" varieties even-aged stand (such together a pine plantation). The shaded area of figure 2 represents those trees the are removed by the shown diameter-based treatment.

Many even-aged stands space more complicated than the stand represented in figure 2 and contain a wide range of species with varying growth rates. Figure 3 is more representative of the distribution in a stand written of number of species. In ~ each types a range of size classes will exist, and also the distribution of each varieties will approximate a bell curve. Yet the average diameter of more slowly cultivation species, such together sugar maple or beech, will certainly be smaller than the of faster-growing species, such as red or black color oak.

figure 3. Even-aged multispecies stand. The shaded area of figure 3 represents those trees the are eliminated by the suggested diameter-based treatment.

The average diameter of short-lived, fast-growing species like black cherry would certainly be even larger 보다 that that the oaks. As figure 3 shows, the stand would certainly contain countless slow-growing individuals with a small average diameter, and a smaller variety of fast-growing people with a bigger average diameter. The sport in size classes amongst the trees might lead the casual observer to conclude the the was standing is uneven-aged. Remember that the turning back is true--the trees in this was standing are all of the same age. Sport in size classes are an ext a result of differences in growth rates among varieties than distinctions in age.

What is known as an uneven-aged stand may look like a complicated even-aged stand. An uneven-aged stand consists of a wide selection of diameter classes, native seedlings to mature trees, at every times. Theoretically, all ages of each varieties are existing in the stand. When this stand may resemble a more complicated even-aged stand, it different in the variation among diameter classes mirrors varying ages and also varying growth rates amongst species. The circulation of tree by diameter course for each types in the stand would appear different from the of the even-aged stand. Because that each types present, the graph the the distribution would be similar to that presented in figure 4: one "inverse J-shaped curve," denote a big number of really young seedlings and saplings and a small number of the largest mature trees.

number 4. Uneven-aged stand. The shaded area of number 4 represents those trees the are removed by the suggested treatment.

The circulation curve because that the whole stand would certainly look favor that because that the individual species, with numerous young trees and also fewer mature trees all existing in the exact same stand. This curve resembles the curve in figure 3; the distinction is in the stand composition. Keeping the stand written of a representative variety of trees in every age course and species is a complex process that is in reality difficult to accomplish. Maintaining various ages in ~ the stand is done most simply by making little clearcuts or "patch" cut throughout the stand every 15 to 20 years.

Now let"s look in ~ what happens to each stand in a diameter-limit cut. In the solitary species, even-aged stand, those eliminated would be in ~ the shaded area in figure 2. These are trees of a set diameter and also larger--in other words, the biggest and often genetically remarkable of the stand. The irreversible detrimental effect is severe once only less competitive people are left in the stand. While the staying trees will benefit from the raised resources, they space inferior to those removed and also will not carry out as well.

In the more complex even-aged stand shown in number 3, the diameter-limit reduced could readjust the stand"s species composition. As illustrated by the shaded area, the larger trees are those the faster-growing species. Castle are gotten rid of from the stand quite than carried through to maturity. The result is a stand poorer in species diversity than the initial stand. The seed source for the following generation that some varieties may be shed as well, so the if seed indigenous another resource is not introduced, future was standing on the website will likewise lack diversity. Often no consideration is provided to remove poorer top quality trees of other types in the stand; just the biggest trees space removed.

Even in an uneven-aged stand where the size of trees in reality does correlate through the age of the trees, a diameter-limit cut can negatively influence stand structure. When younger period classes are not thinned, competition can reduce expansion and delay development in the residual stand. In addition, the removed of all large trees extends the moment to the following commercial harvest. Forest science just does not support a strict diameter-based therapy in either even- or uneven-aged stands.

Are Diameter-based Harvests ever before Recommended?

There room legitimate uses for diameter-based harvests. Diameter-limit cut is a simple, low-cost method of conducting a lumber sale and requires tiny or no supervision--hence its global appeal. Although a strict diameter-limit cut is hardly ever justified, a modification diameter-based cutting with silvicultural "standards" is an intermediate treatment that does have actually its place.

In a relatively uniform, low-grade stand through a high relationship of decayed or defective tree in the bigger diameter ranges, a modified diameter-based cut can be prescribed to regulate stand framework and types composition. By remove the larger, low-grade material, girlfriend can convert a formerly unmanaged, overmature stand to a productive, thrifty one.

Diameter-based cutting without criter is usually propelled by faulty economic premises. Probably the greatest misconception is the a diameter-based harvest will certainly make the many money. It might generate the highest possible immediate cash flow, but it does not take various other costs, such together potential ecological degradation and also future hardwood values, into consideration.

Diameter-limit cutting Vs. Even-aged forest Management

A current study that a 40-year-old was standing of upland, combined oak-hickory kind in southern Missouri (Dwyer and Kurtz 1991) points the end the potential ns of earnings from diameter-limit cutting. The study compared two stands: one one unmanaged stand that was cut using diameter limit and also one a stand controlled over time making use of a collection of thinnings prior to its final harvest with a seed tree cut. The existing cash circulation generated by an 11-inch diameter-limit harvest to be $115.23 per acre, if thinning returned just $78.06 per acre. This was a difference of $37.17 every acre--an attractive proposition if you"re just looking in ~ the short-term obtain (see table below).

However, if all the standing wood in both was standing is harvest 23 years later, a significant difference in values pertains to light. The current value the the diameter-limit cut stand in real dollars readjusted for inflation is $378.23 per acre. ~ above the various other hand, the properly controlled stand, where 2 thinnings were made before the final harvest, is valued at $579.05 per acre, a difference of an ext than $200.00 per acre. This difference represents the premium in large, high-quality hardwood from sound forest management and also the equity lost through high-grading.

Volumes and also Revenues associated with alternate RegimesStand Age(YR)Saw-Timber(BF)Price($/MBF)Cord-Wood(CD)Price($/CD)TotalValue($/Acre)PresentValue($/Acre)Diameter-limit cut regimeManaged was standing regimeTotal
Note: BF = board feet, MBF = thousand board feet, CD = cord Source: J. P. Dwyer and also W. B. Kurtz, "The Realities the Sustainable administration vs. Diameter border Harvest," Northern newspaper of applied Forestry 8 (1991).

Although this examine was conducted in Missouri, the underlying principles apply anywhere. The study renders clear that diameter-limit cut is a universal exercise that takes ar wherever hardwood is harvested, but that is not a instead of for good forestry.

Selective cutting vs. The an option method

A pervasive type of selective cutting is high-grading--a term provided to describe any harvesting method that gets rid of only the most an useful timber. Diameter-based cutting and selective cutting are two usual forms the high-grading. Diameter-limit cutting removes trees end a details minimum size; selective cutting arbitrarily selects the higher-value, fastest-growing individuals or species. Selective cutting is a vaguely identified term that has small meaning. That is frequently used to mask high-grading.

The society of American Foresters defines selective cutting together "a form of exploitation cutting that gets rid of only certain species (a) over a specific size (b) the high value. Well-known silvicultural needs and/or sustained yields being wholly or mostly ignored or discovered impossible to fulfill" (from Terminology of woodland Science, Technology, Practice and Products).

This misleading term--selective cutting--refers come a exercise that has actually no basis in scientific forestry. Over there is no point out of how and also why the trees space selected or what the objective of the cut is. Inappropriate use of terms like selective cutting leader to misunderstandings that impede the practice of forestry.

Conversely, mindful forest administration under the accuse of a competent skilled can productivity a benefit while boosting forestlands with the applications of ideal silvicultural practices and also harvesting. Sound forestry methods are draft to control stand density and types composition, come allocate site resources, and to encourage selected trees, known as "crop trees," come regenerate and also grow.

Selective harvesting, however, must not be perplexed with the term selection method. Choice is a regeneration technique designed to produce or perpetuate an uneven-aged forest. Trees may be eliminated singly or in small groups. A choice cut removes trees from all diameter classes, leave the stand through a variety of sizes. The will of the cut shown in number 5 is to improve the residual stand, encourage rejuvenation in the gaps created, and, most important, retain tree in all dimension classes, especially some larger trees.

number 5. Harvest an uneven-aged stand utilizing a an option method. The shaded area of figure 5 to represent those trees that are eliminated by the indicated treatment.

Figure 6 shows a wanted thinning because that an even-aged multispecies stand. This cut tends to remove the slower-growing tree in every species. The result is to boost the average tree size, retain trees that thrive better, and reduce the time until the following harvest. In comparison to a diameter-limit cut, thinning enhances the stand and retains species diversity.

number 6. Thinning in even-aged multispecies stand. The shaded area of figure 6 to represent those trees that are eliminated by the shown treatment.

High-grading removes so numerous trees of a merchantable diameter that it simplifies was standing structure. Without consideration for the distribution and also composition of the residual stand, the staying trees, which room usually of lesser quality and also value, are therefore unable to successfully use the nutrient and also light sources made accessible by the harvest. Unfortunately, high-grading rather than the selection an approach is regularly standard procedure on exclusive woodlands. In the lengthy run, it"s a no-win situation--the forest"s irreversible value is compromised and its top quality is progressively degraded.

Deciding Which tree to Cut and also Which Ones to Leave

In any type of timber sale, some large trees need to be enabled to continue to be in the was standing because:

they may still be increasing in diameter in ~ an agree ratethey carry out a seed resource for regeneration, and mast for wildlifethey act as a "nurse" chop by providing protection because that shade-loving seedlingsthey give the was standing aesthetic appeal and also structural diversity

Conversely, some smaller-diameter trees regularly should be gotten rid of for equally precious reasons:

they have actually been suppressed so long, they might not respond come releasethey are poor-quality trees that interfere with the expansion of preferable speciesthey might be undesirable types and have tiny timber value in the future standthey might suffer from surrounding soil compaction or your stem may be damaged during harvesting

Trees may likewise suffer from "thinning-shock," a stress and anxiety that may lead to mortality or dieback of branches in the crown.

urthermore, closely removing a portion of the "4d" trees--


--can bring extr profit without adversely affecting stand biodiversity and also productivity.

How bad Cutting Practices affect the Stand

The degree of damages caused by high-grading different according to:

original age, size, varieties composition (structure)types of limits setsite qualityintensity or kind of harvestspecies removepast cutting practices

High-grading regularly produces a residual was standing that consists of low-value, undesirable species, trees of bad form, and little, if any, progressed regeneration of desirable species. There is no timber was standing improvement, recurring high-grading diminishes the relationship of healthy farming stock and reduces the stand"s capacity to develop sawtimber and provide suitable wildlife habitat.

With high-grading approaches there space no long-term administration goals. High-grading is simply a blanket treatment that go not consider site or was standing variation, residual was standing composition, organic diversity, and regeneration.

Defining your Objectives

Most woodlot owners have no written monitoring plan; lock don"t see how a setup can add to their profits or the enjoyment of your forestlands. Some landowners space reluctant come interfere through nature and think the finest management is come let the forest grow unattended. Others room uncertain what is connected or how much it will cost.

Ironically, plenty of landowners space indifferent until they"ve had actually a negative experience through a wood harvest. However as a woodland steward, you need to define your property objectives and develop a long-term management plan before you decide to log your woodlot. In the sections that follow, us encourage you to consult a forester or other natural source professional to develop a management plan for her woodlot.

The woodland Stewardship Plan

Do friend really need a arrangement to manage your woodlot or harvest her timber? Yes. A forest stewardship plan allows you come define and also organize your land-use goals so you gain the most from her woodlands. Technical assistance and cost-sharing is obtainable through the Pennsylvania forest Stewardship Program.

Details about the forest Stewardship Program and the Stewardship catalyst Program"s (SIP) cost-sharing tasks are presented in Forest Stewardship 1: Pennsylvania woodland Stewardship: Our attach to the Past, ours Legacy for the Future. Exactly how to build a stewardship plan is outlined in Forest Stewardship 6: forest Stewardship--Planning your Forest"s Future. Both publications are obtainable from her county expansion or office of Forestry office.

Even if you don"t plan to harvest timber, working through a stewardship source professional come prepare a arrangement will provide an summary of all your woodland resources--not just timber--and give you certain recommendations because that achieving her goals.

The office of Forestry compiles a list of forest stewardship source professionals who have actually completed stewardship training and also are authorized to write woodland stewardship plans. For a present listing of these professionals, contact your regional Bureau the Forestry office.

Case Study: High-Grading

Bill and also Sarah Wolcott, recently retired, chose to construct a 2nd home top top the 800-acre woodlot lock inherited in northwestern Pennsylvania. They want to build a section of the property for actual estate and expected that income from a timber sale would counter some the the development costs. They hoped to use the logging roads to "rough in" more permanent gravel roadways for structure sites. Based upon this plan, they contacted a local forester to help them find their boundaries and assess the worth of their timberland.

As it turns out, much more than fifty percent the woodlot was heavily cutover 25 years ago. The results of a diameter-limit harvest on forest structure and varieties composition had actually persisted for decades. The cutover land had actually grown back, yet the stands had occurred into an open woodland with fern and grass occupying the understory space.

The huge deer herd in the area had got rid of most that the regeneration in the understory. Most of the overstory was comprised of defective beech or street maple and also multiple-stemmed red maple (originating from stump sprouts) and scattered pine--so bad deformed by white-pine weevil that it had small or no commercial value. Throughout the area, there were dense patches the timber, probably trees too little to have actually been reduced 25 years ago, alternative with brushfields.

Although the landowner still had a beneficial resource, the woodlot offered tiny income potential for the prompt future. In the end, the forester encourage a thorough inventory of the entire parcel and also developed a plan for a stepwise rehabilitation of the degraded stands v timber stand development and fencing, and herbicide therapies to exclude deer and also control contending vegetation. In some places, a thinning was prescribed; in others, there to be nothing come do however start over with a collection of job cuts.

If the initial treatment had incorporated a feeling of stewardship and sound woodland management, the Wolcotts would have been maybe to usage their wood asset to meet current objectives.

When girlfriend Harvest Timber, It payment to hire a Forester

In a lumber sale, the "sale item," trees, are more than a sector commodity--they type the significant component of a crucial forest ecosystem. Disruptions from fruit logging methods have eco-friendly impacts the go beyond one landowner"s boundaries. A poorly planned and also executed lumber sale can expense money and also peace of mind.

As part of normal operating procedures, a lumber harvest supervised by a qualified natural source professional consists of erosion and also sedimentation controls and safeguards to safeguard residual timber. A performance bond generally is post to ensure the the logging procedure meets the landowner"s expectation of appearance and that roads and also skid trails are left in a stable problem in order come minimize effects on water resources and aquatic life.

From a purely financial perspective, it pays to have actually a forester prepare a an extensive management setup and, if a harvest is scheduled, to oversee the sale of timber. Many loggers are expert professionals who do a mindful job of extract timber, however they might not maximize the return on your timber.

A current study of mixed hardwood forests in the Midwest confirms these facts. The study confirmed that the mean forester-assisted compete bid sale yielded more than double the actual revenue revenue the the similar nonassisted or "logger"s choice" sale. In addition, the merchantable volume in the residual stand was double as good for the forester-assisted sales. Furthermore, the projected worth of residual stand volume (adjusted for inflation) for two decades was 1.5 times better than for the non-assisted sales.

Woodland owners who execute not occupational with a forester threat receiving a lower earnings from the existing timber sale. They additionally risk a diminished return indigenous lower-quality farming stock top top future sales and also a longer duration between harvests.

For a more complete guide to forestry services and how to occupational with a consulting forester, refer to Pennsylvania Woodlands 11: managing Your Woodlot v the help of a Consulting Forester. This bulletin is easily accessible from her county expansion office.

Working Together: The Keystone of forest Stewardship

Communication is crucial for a effective timber harvest. The symbol below* depicts the three "legs" of any kind of timber harvest: the landowner, logger, and also natural resource professional. One of woodland stewardship"s difficulties is to improve interactions among these players. If over there is understanding and open communication among all three, the harvest will reward anyone involved; if not, the triangle will collapse.

*American Forests, in march 1986.

As a woodland landowner, what have the right to you do? First, you serve your own finest interest by knowledge your forest resources and the choices for controlling them. Job-related with a capable forest stewardship resource professional to help you translate your objectives; take on a written forest stewardship plan to lug them out. If you decide to harvest timber, a working stewardship arrangement can it is in the frame for harvesting.

Using a forester does no guarantee an environmentally sound timber sale, nor does it average you will always maximize your earnings or the you"ll be happy with the results. Yet being fine informed and also working together is a large step in the best direction.

Caretaking a Renewable natural Resource

Although twice as much timber is farming in Pennsylvania"s woodlands as is gift harvested, mounting demands on a fertile but restricted resource method we need to regulate our forests an ext intensively to accomplish future needs. We should balance our growing demand for timber and fiber through the realization the our forest resources have actually other benefits and values.

Throughout this bulletin, we"ve identified the benefits of hardwood harvesting as a device of woodland stewardship. Setup your timber sale carefully--the long-term impacts of poor logging practices, such as repetitive high-grading, threaten a crude oil awakening to the vision of sustainable forest management.

As woodland stewards, we space temporary caretakers the a renewable natural resource. We have actually a choice--to repeat past errors at the price of our woodlands" productivity or occupational together come sustain our forest resources into the future. Pennsylvania"s woodlands are our true usual wealth. With ideal management and care, they will thrive well into the twenty-first century.

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Prepared by Yuriy M. Bihun, stewardship task associate; James Finley, assistant professor; and also Stephen B. Jones, associate professor; and also Ellen Roane, stewardship coordinator, Pennsylvania office of Forestry.