Bartok is far-ranging not only for his compositions but for his contribution to the field of ethnomusicology. He spent significant time and energy going into the landscape to document the folk music of particular regions in eastern Europe. His study of these individual traditions substantially influenced his composition together he increasingly included the scales and rhythms he studied in the countryside into his very own concert music. Despite he was influenced by both Schoenberg and also Stravinsky, and also like them was forced by dispute in Europe to relocate to the joined States, he proclaimed that his music continued to be tonal. This, the course, would certainly be tonality in a loose sense together he often constructed his music using scales obtained from individual idioms rather than the major and minor scales of tonal music. Nevertheless, we hear in Bartok’s music a mixture of modernist dissonance and nationalist elements.

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Introduction


Figure 1. Béla Bartók in 1927


Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25, 1881–September 26, 1945) was a Hungarian composer and also pianist. The is considered one the the most essential composers of the 20th century; he and Liszt are related to as Hungary’s biggest composers. With his collection and analytical research of individual music, he was among the co-founder of to compare musicology, which later became ethnomusicology.

Biography

Childhood and Early year (1881–98)

Béla Bartók to be born in the small Banatian city of Nagyszentmiklós in the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary (since 1920 Sânnicolau Mare, Romania) on in march 25, 1881. Bartók’s family members reflected some of the ethno-cultural diversities the the country. His father, Béla Sr., thought about himself thoroughly Hungarian, because on his father’s next the Bartók family was a Hungarian reduced noble family, originating native Borsod county (Móser 2006a, 44; Bartók 1981, 13), despite his mother, Paula (born Paula Voit), had actually German as a mother tongue, yet was country of “mixed Hungarian” family tree (Bayley 2001, 16) the Danube Swabian origin. Among she closest forefathers there were families with such names as Polereczky (Magyarized polish orSlovak) and also Fegyveres (Magyar).

Béla displayed notable music talent very early in life: according to his mother, he might distinguish in between different dance rhythms the she play on the piano prior to he learned come speak in complete sentences. By the period of four he was able to play 40 piece on the piano and also his mother started formally teaching him the next year.

Béla to be a small and sickly child and suffered from significant eczema until the age of 5. In 1888, when he to be seven, his father (the manager of an farming school) died suddenly. Béla’s mommy then take it him and his sister, Erzsébet, come live in Nagyszőlős (today Vinogradiv, Ukraine) and then toPozsony (German: Pressburg, this particular day Bratislava, Slovakia). In Pozsony, Béla offered his very first public recital at age 11 come a warm an important reception. Amongst the piece he played was his own very first composition, written 2 years previously: a short piece referred to as “The food of the Danube.” Shortly after that László Erkel welcomed him together a pupil.

Early Musical career (1899–1908)

From 1899 come 1903, Bartók studied piano under István Thomán, a former student that Franz Liszt, and composition under János Koessler in ~ the royal Academy the Music in Budapest. There he met Zoltán Kodály, who influenced him greatly and became his lifelong friend and colleague. In 1903, Bartók wrote his very first major orchestral work,Kossuth, a symphonic city which honored Lajos Kossuth, hero that the Hungarian transformation of 1848.

The music of Richard Strauss, who he met in 1902 in ~ the Budapest premiere of additionally sprach Zarathustra,strongly affected his at an early stage work. When visiting a holiday will in the summer the 1904, Bartók overheard a young nanny, Lidi Dósa from Kibéd in Transylvania, sing folk songs to the children in her care. This sparked his lifelong dedication to people music.

From 1907, he also began come be affected by the French composer Claude Debussy, whose compositions Kodály had actually brought back from Paris. Bartók’s massive orchestral functions were quiet in the style of johannes Brahms and also Richard Strauss, but he created a variety of small piano piece which proved his growing interest in folk music. The very first piece to present clear indicators of this new interest is the string Quartet No. 1 in A young (1908), which includes folk-like elements.

In 1907, Bartók began teaching as a piano professor in ~ the imperial Academy. This place freed him from touring Europe as a pianist and permitted him to occupational in Hungary. Amongst his notable students to be Fritz Reiner, teacher Georg Solti, György Sándor, Ernő Balogh, and also Lili Kraus. After ~ Bartók relocated to the united States, he teach Jack Beeson and also Violet Archer.

In 1908, he and Kodály traveled right into the countryside to collect and research old Magyar individual melodies. Their farming interest in people music coincided with a modern-day social interest in traditional national culture. Castle made some surprising discoveries. Magyar individual music had actually previously to be categorised as Gypsy music. The classic example is Franz Liszt’s renowned Hungarian Rhapsodies for piano, i beg your pardon he based on popular arts songs perform by Romani bands that the time. In contrast, Bartók and also Kodály uncovered that the old Magyar individual melodies were based upon pentatonic scales, comparable to those in asian folk traditions, such as those of central Asia, Anatolia and Siberia.

Bartók and Kodály quickly set about incorporating facets of such Magyar peasant music into their compositions. They both generally quoted individual song melodies verbatim and wrote pieces obtained entirely from authentic songs. An instance is his two volumes licensed has been granted For kids for solo piano, containing 80 individual tunes come which he composed accompaniment. Bartók’s style in his arts music compositions was a synthetic of folk music, classicism, and modernism. His melodic and harmonic sense was profoundly affected by the folk music of Hungary, Romania, and other nations. The was particularly fond the the asymmetrical dance rhythms and pungent harmonies uncovered in Bulgarian music. Most of his at an early stage compositions market a mix of nationalist and late Romanticism elements.

Middle Years and Career (1909–39)

Personal Life

In 1909 in ~ the period of 28, Bartók married Márta Ziegler (1893–1967), aged 16. Their son, Béla III, to be born on respectable 22, 1910. After virtually 15 years together, Bartók divorced Márta in June 1923.

Two months after his divorce, the married Ditta Pásztory (1903–1982), a piano student, ten job after proposing come her. She to be aged 19, that 42. Their son, Péter, was born in 1924.

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Opera

In 1911, Bartók wrote what to be to be his only opera, Bluebeard’s Castle, committed to Márta. He gone into it because that a compensation by the Hungarian well Arts Commission, however they rejected his job-related as not fit for the stage. In 1917 Bartók modification the score because that the 1918 première, and also rewrote the ending. Complying with the 1919 revolution, he was pressured by the new Soviet federal government to eliminate the surname of the librettist Béla Balázs from the opera, together he was blacklisted and also had left the country for Vienna. Bluebeard’s lock received only one revival, in 1936, prior to Bartók emigrated. Because that the remainder the his life, back he to be passionately devoted to Hungary, that people and its culture, he never felt much loyalty to the government or its main establishments.