“Don Giovanni” is a two-act opera created by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Lorenzo Da Ponte make the Italian libretto. The opera is based upon a legend fictional character dubbed “Don Juan,” that is a seducer and libertine. Tirso de Molina, a Spanish poet and also dramatist of the Baroque era, created this renowned personality. 

Origin

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“Don Giovanni” premiered in ~ the “Estates Theatre,” previously known as the “National theatre of Bohemia” on the 29th the October, 1787. The libretto to be duly advocated as a “Dramma giocoso,” a genre the denoted a mixture of comedy and also serious action. Mozart famously taped it together an “opera buffa.”

“Don Giovanni” to be commissioned appropriate after Mozart"s extremely successful pilgrimage to Prague in 1787. Da Ponte based the libretto top top Giovanni Bertati’s version for a previous opera titled “Don Giovanni Tenorio.” he was additionally highly influenced by Bertati’s idea of opening the Opera with the assassination of the Commendatore. Also, earlier prototypes the the opera were all collection in Villena, Spain. Da Ponte only explains a city in Spain.

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History & Performances 

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The opera was originally scheduled to be performed for imperial dignitaries top top the 14th of October, 1787. However, the organizers failed to prepare the manufacturing in time. Mozart lastly completed the score top top the 28th the October, 1787. In the premiere, the opera was title as “Don Giovanni, a Dramma giocoso in two acts.” What complied with can only be termed together rapturous admiration, which to be pretty frequently reserved for Mozart in Prague. The an essential acclaim to be overflowing, some also claiming the Mozart has even exceeded himself through this composition. The last ensemble narrating the ethical of the opera was generally excluded in all versions up until the at an early stage parts of the 20th century. However, modern productions have adopted this original heritage wholeheartedly. In the original versions, the Commendatore and Masetto to be played by the very same individual, while modern-day productions utilize various singers because that the role. The Vienna production additionally had a different scene wherein Leporello and also Zerlina do the Duet “For this hands that yours,” and also Donna Elvira has an additional Aria titled “That ungrateful wretch betrayed me.” Mozart has additionally utilized few of the famous opera music of the late 18th century in “Don Giovanni.” He provided “O quanto un sì bel giubilo” from the opera “Una cosa rara” do by Vicente Martín y Soler and “Come un agnello” indigenous the opera “Fra i due litiganti il terzo gode” by Giuseppe Sarti. He additionally used “Non più andrai” from the “The marital relationship of Figaro,” his own creation.

The Play

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Act I

The prelude starts with a massive tempo in “D minor,” add by a short “misterioso” sequence, which ultimately ends with a irradiate allegro in “D major.” In the an initial scene in ~ the Commendatore’s garden, Don Giovanni’s servant Leporello is grumbling around the demanding mindset of his master. The daydreams about being independent sooner or later through the Aria “Night and also day I slave away.” that is claimed to be maintaining an eye out together Don Giovanni tries come seduce/force “Donna Anna,” the Commendatore’s daughter. Soon, Donna Anna enters the garden chasing after Giovanni together she shouts for assist through the Trio “Do not hope, uneven you kill me, that i shall ever before let you operation away!” However, Giovanni successfully escapes only to discover his means blocked by the Commendatore. Giovanni finishes him turn off in a knife duel and also runs away v Leporello. A horrified Anna and also Don Ottavio, she fiancé, uncover the Commendatore dead in a pool of blood. Castle swear vengeance against the assailant with the duet, “Ah, swear come avenge that blood if you can!”

In the next scene, Don Giovanni admonishes Leporello because that being questioning his life choices. Castle hear a woman singing the Aria “Ah, who can ever phone call me,” search vengeance on she lover, who abandoned her. Don Giovanni tries to flirt through this woman, “Donna Elvira,” yet it turns out the he himself is the lover in question. As Donna Elvira rebukes the bitterly, the instructs Leporello to tell her the truth and also runs away. Subsequently, Leporello explains how Don Giovanni really is - unfaithful. His list of conquests includes 1003 ladies in Spain, 91 (Turkey), 100 (France), 231 (Germany), and 640 in Italy. He states this by to sing the Aria, “My too ~ lady, this is the catalog.”

The following scene depicts a peasant wedding procession, as Zerlina and Masetto arrive. Don Giovanni is also at the scene and becomes immediately enchanted by Zerlina. He tries to trick Masetto by offering to hold the ceremony in ~ his castle but fails. An upset Masetto sees ideal through it yet is required to agree together he sings the Aria, “I understand! Yes, mine lord!” Giovanni beginning seducing Zerlina as the duet “There we will entwine ours hands” is performed. However, Donna Elvira thwarts his attempts v the Aria “Flee native the traitor!” and also convinces Zerlina come leave through her. Donna Anna and Don Ottavio get in the scene, still trying to find the unknown assailant. They look for Giovanni’s help, unaware that his true identity. Giovanni pledges to help them together inquires about the event when Donna Elvira all of sudden returns come warn the pair about Don Giovanni’s true colors. Giovanni make the efforts to to convince them that Elvira is deranged together the quarter “Don’t to trust him, oh sad one” plays in the background.

Giovanni pipeline them, yet Donna Anna quickly recognizes him as the intruder that murdered she father. He shares the entirety story v Don Ottavio through a recitative exchange and also reminds him of his vow that vengeance with the Aria, “Now you know who want to rob me of mine honor.” However, Ottavio is not completely convinced however promises to store an eye out together he sings, “On she peace, my peace depends.” Next, Leporello notifies his master that he had effectively distracted Masetto and also the guest at the wedding ceremony, but Donna Elvira and also Zerlina had actually spoiled everything. Giovanni, however, no perturbed. He instructs Leporello to invite every mrs he deserve to find and organize a party thereafter. He sings the Aria, “Till they are tipsy” together they return to his palace.

Meanwhile, Zerlina tries to pacify a jealousy Masetto v the track “Beat, O beat me, handsome Masetto.” However, Don Giovanni quickly arrives and continues his attempts to attract her. He also scolds Masetto because that leaving his fiancee alone in the garden and also leads them towards his ballroom. Donna Elvira, Donna Anna, and Don Ottavio go into the party under disguise. Before entering, lock pray for vengeance and protection with the Trio “May the simply heavens defend us.”

As the guests reap in the ballroom, Leporello properly distracts Masetto so the his master have the right to take Zerlina somewhere private. However, Zerlina screams once Don Giovanni make the efforts to assault her. Giovanni transfers the reference on Leporello instead, threatening to death him for assaulting his guest. However, his ploy fails to to convince anyone. The 3 masked guests confront Don Giovanni, but he manages come escape.

Act II

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Leporello revolts, threaten to leave but is appeased by Giovanni v money as the Duet "Go on, fool" is sung. Giovanni additional exchanges his clothing with his servant, hope to allure Donna Elvira"s maid. Together they reach Elvira"s house, she appears at her window as the Trio "Ah, be quiet unjust heart" is performed. Giovanni hides, sending out Leporello instead. The laments his misgivings indigenous his hideout and also promises to do amends. He further threatens come commit suicide if Elvira doesn"t accept him. Elvira is convinced and also subsequently led far by a disguised Leporello. Giovanni uses this opportunity to lure her maid, singing "Ah, concerned the window" utilizing his mandolin. However, Masetto arrives at the scene v his gang to kill him. Giovanni joins them, pretending to be Leporello, and also deceits lock to go separate means through the Aria, "Half that you go this way, the others, go the way." He then pounces top top Masetto, bring away his weapons, and also leaves. Zerlina arrives at the step to console the bruised peasant, singing, "You"ll see, dear one."

On the other hand, Leporello abandons a distraught Elvira together the song "All alone in this dark place" is performed. However, he is confronted by Donna Anna and also Don Ottavio, as Masetto and Zerlina also join in. Leporello expose his true identity and also begs for mercy. He finally manages to operation away while singing the Aria, "Ah, have mercy, mine lords." every this convinces Don Ottavio that Giovanni undoubtedly is guilty. He again swears revenge with the song "My treasure."

Don Giovanni and also Leporello reunite in ~ a graveyard, which likewise houses a statue the the Commendatore. As Giovanni taunts his servant, a voice from the statue advises him that he will confront the consequences. The statue also has an inscription stating, "Here am ns waiting because that revenge against the scoundrel who eliminated me." Giovanni orders Leporello to offer a dinner invitation to the statue. Leporello is too afraid and trembles as the duet "Oh most noble statue" is sung. Subsequently, Giovanni self invites it together the statue supplies a nod that approval.

Next, Don Ottavio proposes marriage to Donna Anna, almost pressuring her. When she refuses, the accuses her of being unfaithful. Anna belts the end the Aria, "Tell me not," professing she feelings in the direction of him. In the adhering to scene, Don Giovanni is watched reveling in ~ his castle, through luxurious food and music. Leporello is exasperated and also complains to his master as the Finale "Already the table is prepared" is performed. Donna Elvira appears at the scene, declare she just feels compassion because that Don Giovanni and also profuses her feeling by singing, "The last proof of mine love." She pleads the to change but is mocked and also taunted instead. Giovanni claims that women and wine room the genuine glories of life, compelling she to leave. However, she is heard screaming in fear from the door. Leporello is sent to control the situation, but he return equally frightened. Don Giovanni himself opens up the door and finds the statue the the Commendatore. The statue provides him a final chance come rue his misdeeds, which he refuses. The frosting duly disappears, together demons appear out of nowhere and drag Don Giovanni come Hell.

Masetto, Zerlina, Donna Elvira, Don Ottavio, and also Donna Anna all arrive at the castle and also discover a terrified Leporello hiding under Giovanni"s table. The narrates the entirety incident and also assures the Don Giovanni is gone because that good. The mood changes instantly, together Don Ottavio and also Donna Anna announce your future marriage. Donna Elvira decides to lead a secluded life as Masetto pipeline for his home. Finally, Leporello pipeline for the tavern in search of a far better overlord.

All the characters narrate the ethical of the opera - "The end of one evildoer is such; the fatality of a sinner is constantly reflected in his life" as part of the curtain call.

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Musical Overview 

The composition of “Don Giovanni” utilizes a timpani, three various trombones (bass, tenor, alto), 2 each that trumpets, horns, and twin woodwinds. The recitatives utilize continuous bass lines, equipped through improvised harmonies and likewise a familiar string section. Mozart also opted for the occasional music effects. The ballroom scene in the an initial act provides two various onstage ensembles performing unique dance music, albeit, synchronized v the orchestra. All team music is accompanied by dances of primary characters.

In plot 2, he more uses a mandolin, partnered through pizzicato strings. In the later stage the the second act, the Commendatore"s interventions space accompanied through a chorale of trombones, bassoons, clarinets, and oboes. The string section is also prominent here, with basses and also cellos. The opera concludes through a return to “D major,’ with an added flavor of simplicity.

The opera is widely concerned as a part of Mozart"s finest creations, apart from being called one of the greatest operas of all time. “Don Giovanni” has actually aptly end up being a constructive subject for philosophers and writers. That is now a clip of the Customary “operatic repertoire.” It also ranks 9th in the perform of most-performed operas, follow to Operabase.

Usage In well-known Culture 

The finale that the Opera has constantly been a captivating artistic and also philosophical subject in the musical and literary world.

In 1903, George young name Shaw produced a parody the the iconic character “Don Giovanni” in his drama “Man and Superman.” E. T. A. Hoffmann produced a short story heavily influenced by Mozart’s work and also Don Juan. However, he illustrated the character as an anti-hero, rebelling against society. Peter Shaffer provided Giovanni in the beat “Amadeus,” a fictitious biography of Mozart. Franz Liszt used the music that the initial opera in “Réminiscences de Don Juan,” his operatic fantasy. Frédéric Chopin produced a variation of “There we will entwine our hands” for orchestra and piano. Franz Danzi and Ludwig valve Beethoven likewise crafted their very own variation that the same theme. In 1981, Michael Nyman created a quick musical item titled “Re Don Giovanni.”The opera “The tales of Hoffmann” through Jacques Offenbach is equipped with a rendition of “Night and also day I slave away.”

In “Don Giovanni,” Mozart offers a palette of warmth, drama, and elegance, even settling on part insightful however unusual choice of tempo. The deviation and also insight the emotions space perfectly well balanced with elan. He successfully retains the simmering “Class tensions” transparent the opera. He emphasizes drama over comedy, exuding the darker side of his protagonist. The philandering aristocratic clout is seamlessly recorded in the overture, accompanied by part threatening chords.

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His music frequently sneers in ~ the widespread social structure, albeit, continuing to be utterly delightful. However, there is ample evidence that the composer wasn’t completely comfortable through the storyline. The duets and arias and the visibility of the final ensemble mark his attempts in ~ a somewhat obvious shot at vindication. However, not when did that sacrifice the musical line, ascending right into a human being of dynamic melodious contrasts. “Don Giovanni” continues to be a work of uninterrupted perfection, devoid of blemish - a occupational of art.