This page describes reactions of the halogens that carry out not autumn under the various other categories in other pages in this section. All the reactions defined here space redox reactions.
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Reactions with iron
With the exception of iodine, iron burns in halogen vapor, developing iron(III) halides. Iodine is less reactive, and also produces iron(II) iodide.
Reactions with options containing iron(II) ions
Only the reactions of chlorine, bromine, and also iodine can be considered. Aqueous fluorine is really reactive through water. Chlorine and bromine are solid enough oxidizing agents come oxidize iron(II) ion to iron(III) ions. In the process, chlorine is diminished to chloride ions, bromine to bromide ions.
This process is easiest to visualize with ionic equations:
For the bromine equation, Br is substituted because that Cl.
The pale green solution include the iron(II) ion turns right into a yellow or orange equipment containing iron(III) ions. Iodine is no a solid enough oxidizing certified dealer to oxidize iron(II) ions, so over there is no reaction. In fact, the turning back reaction proceeds. Iron(III) ions are strong enough oxidizing agents come oxidize iodide ions to iodine as shown:
< 2Fe_3+ + 2I^- ightarrow 2Fe^2+ + I_2>
The reaction the chlorine v cold sodium hydroxide solution
Chlorine and also cold, dilute salt hydroxide react together follows:
< 2NaOH + Cl_2 ightarrow NaCl + NaClO + H_2O>
NaClO (sometimes created as NaOCl) symbolizes salt chlorate(I). The traditional name because that this link is salt hypochlorite; the equipment on the product side of the equation is frequently sold as bleach.
Consider this reaction in terms of oxidation states. Chlorine displays an noticeable state adjust from that is elemental type to ionic compounds. The oxidation numbers because that each aspect are presented below:
Chlorine is the only facet that alters oxidation state—it is both oxidized and reduced. One atom is reduced since its oxidation state has actually decreased; the various other is oxidized. This is a great example that a disproportionation reaction, a reaction in i m sorry a solitary substance is both oxidized and also reduced.
The reaction that chlorine with hot sodium hydroxide solution
Chlorine reacts through hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide together follows:
< 6NaOH + 3Cl_2 ightarrow 5NaCl + NaClO_3 + 3H_2O>
The product developed is salt chlorate(V) - NaClO3. As before, the oxidation claims of each element are calculated. When again, the only readjust is in chlorine, indigenous 0 in the chlorine molecule on the reactant side to -1 (in the NaCl) and also +5 (in the NaClO3). This is one more example the a disproportionation reaction.
Balancing equations because that these reactions
The first equation is straightforward to balance. The second one is more difficult; oxidation states are used to derive it.
The two main products of the reaction are NaCl and NaCIO3, therefore the reaction can be tentatively composed as follows:
< NaOH + Cl_2 ightarrow NaCl + NaClO_3 + ? >
In that is conversion come NaCl, the oxidation state that the chlorine decreases native 0 come -1. Once converted come NaClO3, it boosts from 0 to +5. The confident and an unfavorable oxidation state changes must publication out, so because that every NaClO3 formed, there must be 5 NaCl:
< NaOH + Cl_2 ightarrow 5NaCl + NaClO_3 + ? >
Now that is a simple task come balance the sodium and also the chlorine atoms, ~ which over there are enough hydrogen and also oxygen atoms to make 3H2O.
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Bromine and sodium hydroxide solution
For bromine, the development of the salt bromate(V) wake up at about room temperature. Salt bromate(I) have to be created at about 0°C.
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