AP Biology help » Cellular biologic » Cell features » Cellular department » understanding Meiosis
Explanation:

Gametes space haploid cells that created via meiosis. Throughout meiosis, diploid cells divide right into four nonidentical haploid daughter cells. Mitosis produce two identical diploid somatic cell from one parental cell.


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Explanation:

Meiosis outcomes in cells with 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and also 1 sex chromosome). Keep in mind that this cells space haploid since n=23, and nonidentical, as result of crossing over during prophase I.

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Explanation:

Gametes space made via meiosis which produces cells through n=23 rather of diploid cells. If gametes were created instead by mitosis every gamete would certainly be diploid no haploid. Throughout fertilization the diploid gametes, the zygote would come to be 4n=92. With each brand-new generation the variety of chromosomes would double.


Explanation:

In biology, the ax “ploidy” describes the number of chromosome sets every cell. Haploid cells have half of the variety of chromosomes as parental cells, meaning that castle only lug a single copy of every gene. Haploid cells room formed throughout meiosis and, in humans, produce gametes, i m sorry mature into sperm and also egg cells.


Explanation:

Diploid cells contain two duplicates of each chromosome, thus containing twice as many (2n) chromosomes as a haploid cell (n), which contain just one copy of each chromosome. In humans, diploid somatic cell contain 46 chromosomes, or 23 bag of chromosomes.


Explanation:

Trisomy 21, or down syndrome results once a human being individual inherits three duplicates of chromosome 21, instead of the regular two copies (one maternal and one paternal). This is caused by nondisjunction, or the improper distinction of chromosomes during cell division. In the case of trisomy 21, nondisjunction leads to a fail of chromosome 21 segregation throughout meiosis (most of the time during anaphase I). This outcomes in either an egg or sperm delivering two duplicates of chromosome 21 rather of one. The zygote formed by fertilization develops into an individual that has three duplicates of chromosome 21. Trisomy 21 manifests in physical expansion delays, pundit disabilities, and distinctive facial features. 


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Example concern #31 : knowledge Meiosis


Which molecular system is no a possible cause the nondisjunction?


Possible Answers:

Maternal gametes have actually a higher chance of exhibiting nondisjunction


Older age of one individual leader to weaker cohesin complexes in ~ the centromere


Failure to pass the spindle assembly checkpoint


Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Correct answer:

Error in cytoplasmic partitioning


Explanation:

Nondisjunction is the improper distinction of chromosomes during meiosis or mitosis. The molecular causes behind nondisjunction are (1) increased rate of nondisjunction in woman cells, (2) fail to correctly pass the spindle assembly checkpoint, and also (3) weakening the the cohesion facility at the centromere due to age.


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Example concern #38 : expertise Meiosis


Which that the adhering to organisms perform not perform meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Bacteria


Mammals


Flowering plants


Mosses


Correct answer:

Bacteria


Explanation:

Meiosis is a procedure that produce gametes in sexual reproduction. Therefore, organisms the undergo sex-related reproduction or attribute sexual life stages undergo meiosis. Mammals produce haploid sperm and eggs v meiosis, i m sorry fuse to form a diploid zygote. In mosses, reproduction is referred to as the alternation that generations, meaning that generations alternating between haploid and diploid forms. In this system, meiosis produce haploid spores throughout the sporophyte generation, i beg your pardon germinate to form gametophyte precursors. In flowering plants, cells in male and also female sexual organs experience meiosis to type precursor sex cells, referred to as spores. Prokaryotes, including bacteria, perform asexual reproduction that does not incorporate the procedure of meiosis. Species of asexual reproduction include fission, budding, and fragmentation. In the case of bacteria, cells reproduce through binary fission, or cellular division without mitotic spindles.


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Example inquiry #31 : knowledge Meiosis


What enzyme aids in chromosomal crossing over throughout prophase i of meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Protein kinase


DNA ligase


DNA polymerase


Recombinase


Correct answer:

Recombinase


Explanation:

During crossing end in prophase i of meiosis, over there is a physics exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. This exchange occurs at the sites of double stranded breaks, where recombinase enzymes facilitate the intrusion of the various other chromatid. The initial strand and invading strand anneal following this invasion. When this happens between two chromosomes, the strands kind a tetrahedral plan called a Holliday junction. Other recombinase enzymes move the junction under the strands, furthering recombination.


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Example concern #31 : knowledge Meiosis


What is the term because that the structural plan of chromatids undergoing crossing over during meiosis?


Possible Answers:

Equatorial plane


Holliday junction


Kinetochore


Telomere


Correct answer:

Holliday junction


Explanation:

During prophase i of meiosis, homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material in a procedure called cross over. Twin stranded breaks and recombinase enzyme facilitate chromatid invasion and also annealing. The tetrahedral structure formed through strand invasion in between two chromosomes is dubbed the Holliday junction.

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