By the summer the 1862, Lincoln had come to the conclusion that he would have actually to free the slaves in the Southern claims in bespeak to win the war.

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Lincoln read the an initial draft that the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation come his cabinet in July of 1862, however calculated the would need a armed forces victory to carry out justification and credibility for its execution. The Union win at the battle of Antietam (September 17, 2022) offered Lincoln his victory. Top top September 22, Lincoln released his Preliminary Proclamation together a warning to claims still in ~ war through the Union. If lock did not cease your fire, their servants would come to be forever totally free on January 1, 1863.

What was Lincoln’s primary motive behind the Emancipation Proclamation? did he yes, really care about abolishing slavery, or walk he just want to success the war? Most historians agree the Lincoln want to achieve both, yet that his main goal at the moment was to keep the Union. In a letter explaining his place to brand-new York Tribune editor Horace Greeley, Lincoln wrote:

“If there would be those that would not conserve the Union, uneven they could at the very same time save slavery, I do not agree with them. If there be those that would not save the Union unless they might at the exact same time ruin slavery, I do not agree through them. Mine paramount object in this battle is to conserve the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery.”

At this allude in his presidency, Lincoln witnessed it as his duty to place the preservation of the Union above all other goals, also though his personal belief was that all men should be free.

The Emancipation Proclamation | extr images:

On January 1, 1863, Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in all Southern states still in rebellion versus the Union, with the exception of Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts that Virginia.

This manuscript breeze was written on the morning the January 1 and also rushed to the State room to it is in engrossed. It was then went back for Lincoln’s signature. Lincoln signed the manuscript, in addition to his secretary wilhelm H. Seward. However while or soon after signing his name, the President noticed an error in the subscription in ~ the end of the document. That read: “In testimony whereof I have actually hereunto collection my name and also cause the seal that the United says to be affixed.” This phraseology was used to proclaim contract that had actually been validated by Congress. But because the Emancipation Proclamation to be Lincoln’s very own executive order, the correct phraseology should have actually been: “In evil whereof I have actually hereunto set my hand...”

Lincoln did not desire to hazard confusion in the main copy of state, or worse, provide an opened for legal challenge. The chairman directed the a brand-new copy it is in made, i beg your pardon he ultimately signed so late in the day. At some point during its journey to and also from the State Department, however, the very first manuscript containing the error was leaked to the Washington evening Star, which released it in the early afternoon. At the very least one other newspaper printed the erroneous version prior to the chairman signed and also issued the official, corrected Proclamation.

Lincoln bibliographer Charles Eberstadt believed that Seward likely kept this first manuscript, include the “testimony...” error. He notes: “... passed come Albany associate, senator Cole...From Cole the passed come his secretary, open minded A. Smith, and also from him come his grandson, Francis S. Marlow; the then saw Joseph F. Sabin and, later, to Stan V. Henkels, from whom it was gained by the late Oliver R. Barrett.”

Cornell university has owned this manuscript of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation because 1952. Nicholas H. And Marguerite Lilly Noyes to buy the manuscript in ~ Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc. ~ above February 20, 1952, in ~ the third session the the Oliver R. Barrett Lincoln arsenal sale. It was purchased for $18,000 by David Randall for Charles Scribner’s Sons, representing the Noyeses.

Cornell’s copy of the Emancipation Proclamation is in the hand that a secretary. There were as soon as two copies of the Emancipation Proclamation in Lincoln’s handwriting: a preliminary and also a final copy. The final copy was obtained by the Chicago historic Society, wherein it melted in the 1871 Chicago Fire. In 1865 the preliminary copy was got by the brand-new York State in Albany, whereby it remains today.

The official, engrossed copy, which Lincoln signed and sent come the State Department, is currently in The nationwide Archives.

A Proclamation of Emancipation. Printed Broadside. Offered for sale by the new York Tribune. In Andrew Dickson White Rebellion Miscellany Scrapbook. Volume 4, pages 2-3. | added images:

Andrew Dickson White, Cornell University’s very first president, was a life-long publication collector. In this scrapbooks that carefully built up and saved main printed products documenting the progress of the polite War, understanding that future generations of scholar would uncover in them important resources because that describing and also interpreting this defining duration in American history.

Proclamation of emancipation, by the president of the unified States, January 1st, 1863. | additional images:

This small pamphlet print of the Emancipation Proclamation was created for circulation to Union soldiers and others follow me the fight fronts. Rail magnate and also abolitionist john Murray Forbes produced it to ensure the Lincoln’s intentions would be widely known and easily circulated.

Andrew Dickson White’s Civil battle scrapbook screens the front cover the this pamphlet. The ago cover of one more copy is also shown.

“Reading the Emancipation Proclamation.” Engraved by J.W. Watte, after a illustration by H. W. Herrick. Hartford: Lucius Stebbins, 1864.

This is just one of the few engravings come depict the an initial reading the the Emancipation Proclamation through those who had just been freed by it. The scene mirrors a Union soldier reading Lincoln’s bespeak aloud to an ecstatic collection of slaves.

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Kellogg, Robert H. Life and Death in Rebel Prisons... Hartford: L. Stebbins, 1865.

An advertisement for the engraving appears at the end of Robert Kellogg’s Life and also Death in Rebel Prisons.

First Anniversary that the Proclamation of freedom in south Carolina, organized at Beaufort, S.C., January 1, 1864. Beaufort, S.C.: cost-free South Print, Wilkes & Thompson, proprietors, 1864. |

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