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CAROL J. BOYD, Ph.D., M.S.N., FAAN, CHRISTIAN J. TETER, Pharm.D., and also SEAN ESTEBAN MCCABE, Ph.D., M.S.W.

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Department of Nursing and Women’s research studies (C.J.B.), substance Abuse Research center (C.J.B., C.J.T., S.E.M.), and also College that Pharmacy, The college of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA (C.J.T.)
Address correspondence to: Carol J. Boyd, Ph.D., M.S.N., Director, substance Abuse research Center, 475 industry Place, Suite D, Ann Arbor, MI 48108-1649. E-mail: ude.hcimu

During a school-based survey, middle and high school students (n = 1536) report on your nonprescribed, life time use the asthma inhalers. About 15% of 8th and 9th graders reported utilizing nonprescribed asthma inhalers; the odds because that this behavior were significantly greater for this students (2.25 and 2.30, respectively) and also the nonprescribed usage of asthma inhalers to be significantly associated with greater rates of various other drug use.


There space multiple reports of asthma inhaler misuse, through both asthmatic and nonasthmatic people <1-4>. To date, however, the nonprescribed use, an especially by children, stays under-investigated. Potential reasons for this misuse may be pertained to the perceived benefits of sorry stimulation (e.g., racing heart, boosted alertness, broadened lung capacity, etc.) or alternatively, the impact of the fluorocarbon propellants (e.g., gentle stimulation, euphoria, and intoxication) <2,4>. This descriptions are constant with other research demonstrating the antidepressant effects of infused salbutamol and hyperactivity and manic atmosphere that have been reported to occur in young children after oral salbutamol <3>.

Despite multiple situation reports of asthma inhaler misuse, most famous national research studies of adolescent drug use and other risk habits fail to specifically assess the ubiquity of nonprescribed asthma inhaler use in youth <5,6>.

The objective of this exploratory examine was to examine the lifetime, nonprescribed usage of asthma inhalers within a sample of middle and high school students in Michigan, a state with asthma rates continual with various other states in the nation (i.e., 7.3% with a life time rate of 10.3% <7>). The key objectives of this exploratory study were (a) to assess the ubiquity of nonprescribed asthma inhaler use amongst subgroups that middle and also high college students in a racially diverse community, and (b) to explore the relationship in between the nonprescribed usage of asthma inhalers and also other medicine use.


Methods

The present study emerged during a 1-week duration in may 2002 and drew ~ above a population of 1723 college student in sixth through 11th qualities from one public school district in the Detroit, Michigan urban area. All students and also their parental or guardians were sent letters explaining that participation in the study was voluntary, relenten its relevance and also assuring the all responses would certainly be kept confidential. Parental informed consent was obtained and also the survey was performed over the net from computer system laboratories in the students’ schools. Student were provided sheets v a unique preassigned pen (personal identification number) that allowed them to access the web survey and also these sheets were destroyed immediately after administration. Students take it the survey at private computer terminals and at the very least two research staff looked after each computer system laboratory to screen students’ conduct. College officials and also staff were unable to access any personally i can identify information connected with the respondents’ data. The web survey was maintained on a hosted secure net site to run under the certain sockets layer (SSL) protocol to insure respondent data were safely transmitted in between the respondent’s browser and the server. An 89% solution rate was accomplished and this rate compares favorably with national school-based alcohol and other drug researches <5>. The university of Michigan’s human Subject testimonial Board authorized this study.


Instruments

The survey took about 20 minute to complete and also included questions around lifetime, nonprescribed use of asthma inhalers (among various other medications) as well as use that alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, ecstasy, and cocaine. The substance use concerns were adjusted from national studies <5,8>.


Sample

Our sample included 1536 middle and also high college students in grades 6 through 11 native a Detroit-area public institution district; 57% to be white, 40% to be African-American, and also 3% to be from various other racial and also ethnic groups. Gender and school level were approximately equally spread in the college student sample and 72% the students had plans to attend college.

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Results

Overall, 155 students report the nonprescribed use of asthma inhalers. As illustrated in Table 1, females and African-Americans were more likely 보다 males or whites to use nonprescribed asthma inhalers yet these differences were not statistically significant. Bivariate and also multivariate analyses indicated that 8 hours graders (OR = 2.25, p < .01) and 9th graders (OR = 2.30, p < .01) to be significantly an ext likely to use asthma inhalers no prescribed to them when compared with larger students.


Sample dimension (n)Nonprescribed usage (%)χ2 (df) p valueAdjusted Odds ratio (n = 1435)
Total145010.7
Gender
 Male7459.52.0 (1) .1551.00
 Female70511.81.34
Race
 White8219.72.3 (2) .3141.00
 Black58312.21.34
 Other468.70.73
School level
 6th grade2527.516.8 (5) .005**1.00
 7th grade2809.61.27
 8th grade22914.42.25**
 9th grade26715.42.30**
 10th grade2219.51.39
 11th grade1936.20.90
College plans
 Yes120410.80.1 (2) .7691.00
 No24610.20.92
Participation in sports
 Yes51611.81.1 (1) .3001.24
 No93410.11.00
Parental education
 Less than high school7211.16.5 (5) .2651.00
 High school26113.01.05
 Some college3468.70.61
 College4129.00.61
 Graduate school23413.70.98
 No information11811.00.91