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Bone markings are invaluable come the to know of separation, personal, instance bones and bony piece and help in the knowledge of functional and evolutionary anatomy. Lock are provided by clinicians and surgeons, particularly orthopedists, radiologists, forensic scientists, detectives, osteologists, and anatomists. Although the untrained eye might overlook bone markings together contours that the bone, they are not together simple. Bone markings play vital role in human and animal anatomy and physiology. The usability of bone markings arrays from permitting joints come slide past each various other or lock skeletal in place, giving structural support to muscle and connective tissue, and also providing circumferential stabilization and protection come nerves, vessels, and connective tissue. Expertise the prestige of bone markings provides a brand-new appreciation and understanding of bony anatomy and its useful relationships through soft tissues.<1><2><3><4><5>
Common Bone Markings
Angles - spicy bony angulations that might serve as bony or soft tissue attachments but often are offered for precise anatomical description. Examples include the superior, inferior, and also acromial angle of the scapula and the superior, inferior, lateral angles of the occiput.
Body - This usually refers to the largest, most influential segment of bone. Examples include the diaphysis or shaft of long bones choose the femur and also humerus.
Condyle - refers to a large prominence, which frequently provides structural support to the overlying hyaline cartilage. It bear the brunt the the force exerted from the joint. Examples encompass the knee share (hinge joint), developed by the femoral lateral and medial condyles, and the tibial lateral and medial condyles. Additionally, the occiput has actually an occipital condyle which articulates v atlas(C1) and accounts for about 25 levels of cervical flexion and also extension.
Crest - A increased or prominent part of the edge of a bone. Crests are frequently the sites where connective organization attaches muscle come bone. The iliac stakes is discovered on the ilium.
Diaphysis - describes the main part of the pillar of a lengthy bone. Lengthy bones, including the femur, humerus, and also tibia, all have actually a shaft.
Epicondyle - A importance that sit atop the a condyle. The epicondyle attaches muscle and also connective organization to bone, offering support to this musculoskeletal system. Examples encompass the femoral medial and also lateral epicondyles and humeral medial and lateral epicondyles.
Epiphysis - The articulating segment of a bone, typically at the bone"s proximal and distal poles. That usually has a bigger diameter 보다 the tower (diaphysis). The epiphysis is an essential for bone growth because it sits adjacent to the physeal line, additionally known together the development plate.
Facet - A smooth, flat surface that forms a joint with another flat bone or another facet, together developing a gliding joint. Instances can be checked out in the page joints that the vertebrae, which allow for flexion and also extension of the spine.
Fissure - An open up slit in a bone that usually homes nerves and also blood vessels. Examples incorporate superior and inferior orbit fissure.
Foramen - A hole through which nerves and blood ship pass. Examples encompass supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen top top the cranium.
Fossa - A shallow depression in the bone surface. Below it might receive another articulating bone or act to support brain structures. Examples include trochlear fossa, posterior, middle, and anterior cranial fossa.
Groove - A furrow in the bone surface ar that runs follow me the size of a ship or nerve, providing an are to prevent compression by surrounding muscle or exterior forces. Examples incorporate a radial groove and the groove because that the transverse sinus.
Head - A rounded, prominent extension of bone the forms part of a joint. It is separated native the shaft of the bone by the neck. The head is usually spanned in hyaline cartilage within a synovial capsule. The is the key articulating surface with the surrounding bone, forming a "ball-and-socket" joint.
Margin - The edge of any flat bone. It can be used to specify a bone"s boundaries accurately. For example, the leaf of the temporal bone articulating v the occipital bone is dubbed the occipital margin the the temporal bone. And vice versa, the edge of the occipital bone articulating v the temporal bone is called the temporal margin of the occipital bone.
Meatus - A tube-like channel the extends within the bone, i beg your pardon may carry out passage and protection come nerves, vessels, and even sound. Examples include external acoustic meatus and also internal auditory meatus.
Neck - The segment in between the head and the obelisk of a bone. That is often demarcated native the head by the visibility of the physeal line in pediatric patients and also the physeal scar (physeal heat remnant) in adults. That is frequently separated right into the surgical neck and also anatomical neck. The anatomical neck, which may represent the old epiphyseal plate, is frequently demarcated by its attachments to capsular ligaments. The operation neck is often much more distal and is demarcated by the website on the neck the is most frequently fractured. Because that example, in the humerus, the anatomical neck runs obliquely native the greater tuberosity to just inferior to the humeral head. The surgical neck operation horizontally and a couple of centimeters distal to the humeral tuberosities.
Notch - A depression in a bone i beg your pardon often, however not always, provides stabilization to an adjacent articulating bone. The articulating bone will slide into and also out the the notch, guiding the selection of motion of the joint. Examples include the trochlear notch top top the ulna, radial notch that the ulna, suprasternal notch, and also the mandibular notch.
Ramus - The curved component of a bone that provides structural assistance to the rest of the bone. Examples encompass the superior/inferior pubic ramus and ramus of the mandible.
Sinus - A cavity within any kind of organ or tissue. Examples include paranasal sinuses and also dural venous sinuses.
Spinous procedure - A raised, sharp elevation that bone wherein muscles and also connective organization attach. It is different than a normal process in the a spinous procedure is more pronounced.
Trochanter - A big prominence on the next of the bone. Some of the biggest muscle groups and most dense connective tissues connect to the trochanter. The many notable instances are the greater and lesser trochanters that the femur.
Tuberosity - A moderate importance where muscles and also connective organization attach. Its role is similar to that of a trochanter. Examples incorporate the tibial tuberosity, deltoid tuberosity, and ischial tuberosity.
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Tubercle - A small, rounded prominence where connective tissues attach. Examples encompass the greater and also lesser tubercle that the humerus.