Note:

To appreciate the utility of clinical notation, let"s begin with a simple example. Utilizing nothing but a pencil and piece that scrap paper, do the complying with operations:1. Add 5 and also 3.2. Division 100 through 52, come the nearest tenth.3. Subtract 503 indigenous 10300.4. Main point 34,074,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000 by 0.0000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000 0000000000732.Having any type of trouble?

Chances space you were breezing along pretty smoothly till you came to problem 4. Once numbers autumn within a scale that you deserve to intuitively grasp, it"s sufficient to stand for them v the icons you"ve known because kindergarten. Yet the range of number one works with when exploring the Universe"s full scale is therefore overwhelming the a new method of representing them i do not care essential.

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Scientific notation is such a method, and in science it"s together imperative together elementary institution multiplication tables. The general type of a number in clinical notation is:

N x 10x,

which in words reads: N time 10 elevated to the power of x, wherein x is referred to as the exponent, or power of 10. To convert an ordinary number come its scientific notation counterpart, here"s a two-step process:

1. Locate the decimal suggest of your number, and also move it either to the best or to the left, so the there is just one non-zero digit to the left that it. This new number is her N.

2. Count the number of spaces friend just had actually to move your decimal point. If you relocated to the left, then each an are adds 1 come x (where x starts at zero.) If you moved to the right, climate each an are adds -1 to x.

EXAMPLE 1: 5,230,400.00For step 1, you need to move the decimal allude 6 areas to the left. The number now reads: 5.23040000, or 5.2304 (since any kind of trailing zeroes may be dropped.) for this reason 5.2304 is your worth of N.

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For step 2, recall the you have moved 6 placess come the left, so that your worth of x = 6. So your number in scientific notation is: 5.2304x106, or "5.2304 times 10 come the 6th (power.)"

EXAMPLE 2: 0.00038This time, you relocate the decimal allude to the right, 4 spaces. N = 3.8 and also x = -4. So your number in scientific notation becomes: 3.8x10-4, or 3.8 times 10 come the negative-fourth (power.)

Once you have actually converted your number into scientific notation, girlfriend will find that computations come to be much easier. Below are five rules the numbers in clinical notation obey:

MULTIPLICATION:

*

EXAMPLE:

*

DIVISION:

*

ex:

*

ADDITION and SUBTRACTION:

*

*

*

*

*

This one"s trickier. In the very first number gift multiplied, 10 is raised to the power of 5, if in the second number, 10 is elevated to the strength of 6. To include these 2 numbers, we need to write castle both making use of the same exponent. For this reason we"ll need to readjust the type of among them. We"ll (arbitrarily) pick the very first number, and adjust (4 x 105) to a form with exponent 6 rather of 5. Remember the for every decimal shift to the left we include +1 come the exponent, and also for each change to the right we include -1. Due to the fact that we want to add +1 to our exponent that 5, we relocate the decimal suggest once come the left, and our number becomes: (0.4 x 106.)

currently both numbers have the very same exponent value of 6. Including them, us find:

*

EXPONENTIAL OPERATIONS

*

*

*

*

(Recall that raising a number come the power 1/2 is indistinguishable to taking the square root.)

RAISING to THE power OF ZERO

One special case is worthy of being detailed here: raising a number come the power of zero. You might think that anything raised to the strength of zero would certainly be zero. However consider the difficulty that that would cause:

Anything separated by chin is 1. In particular,(103)/(103) = 1.But (103)/(103) have the right to be expressed as(103)(10-3),

and by the dominance of including and individually exponents, (103)(10-3) = 10(3-3)which = 100; thus 100 should equal 1.